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List of language pairs

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This page gives a list of language pairs presently being developed in the Apertium project.

The language pairs are divided into four branches according to their state of progress.

  • Trunk refers to validated language pairs, or those that are about to be validated. It is with these language pairs that the translation process works the best.
  • Staging refers to language pairs that still require a few weeks of work before being validated. Some words can be translated as a lemma preceded by a # indicating that the word have been recognized in the original language, that it has a translation, but there is a problem in grammar rules or to generate properly the word translated. But for the majority of words, the translation process works fine.
  • Nursery refers to the language pairs that need still some months of work before being validated. The proportion of words preceded by a # is bigger. There may also be words preceded by an @ . In this case, the word has been recognised in the original language but does not have to available translation. In spite of these imperfections, the language pair can be useful for understanding a text.
  • Incubator refers to just started pairs. Some have been abandoned in draft state, others are under development. A pair whose development is already very advanced may still be in the incubator if nobody has moved it to another branch.

A lot of language pairs propose translation variants. For those know them, are accessible on this website by choosing the manual input of the translation direction.

Not all the language pairs have been developed to translate in both directions. The tables indicate the translation directions that have been planned.

A small number of language pairs propose several variants for the destination language (for example Norwegian) for which none of them match a code in the name of the pair. In this case, the following tables does not mention the possibility to translate to this language..


Many websites allow on-line translation with Apertium. apertiumtrad.tuxfamily.org allows

  • Surface form analysis for most of the languages of the Apertium project
  • Lemma translations most of the language pairs
  • Text and web pages translations for most of the language pairs that reached at least Nursery level.

The website apertium.org is the official website, but it only uses released language pairs for translations.


You can download language pairs to translate directly on your computer. See Installation. You can also contribute to Apertium project by improving existant language pairs or creating new ones. Remember in that case to register you on the page Language and pair maintainer.

This wiki countains a lot of documentation pages describing how Apertium works.


Another regularily updated version of this page is availlable on apertiumtrad.tuxfamily.org

The content of this page is automaticaly generated but after that updated manually with a variable frequency. To update this page, use this link and take the source code of what you get to paste it as the content of this wiki page.

This page was generated on the 11 may 2018.


[edit] Trunk

Name of the language pair Name of the language pair Last update
apertium-afr-nld Afrikaans <-> Dutch 09 mar 2018
apertium-arg-cat Aragonese <-> Catalan 31 mar 2018
apertium-bel-rus Belarusian <-> Russian 02 aug 2017
apertium-br-fr Breton --> French 19 july 2017
apertium-ca-it Catalan <-> Italian 03 july 2017
apertium-cat-srd Catalan <-> Sardinian 31 jan 2018
apertium-crh-tur Crimean Tatar <-> Turkish 02 febr 2018
apertium-cym-eng Welsh <-> English 10 mar 2018
apertium-dan-nor Danish <-- Norwegian 06 jan 2017
apertium-en-es English <-> Spanish 11 jan 2018
apertium-eng-cat English <-> Catalan 09 may 2018
apertium-eng-kaz English <-> Kazakh 28 nov 2017
apertium-en-gl English <-> Galician 15 july 2016
apertium-eo-ca Esperanto <-- Catalan 15 sept 2017
apertium-eo-en Esperanto <-> English 13 dec 2015
apertium-eo-es Esperanto <-- Spanish 15 febr 2017
apertium-eo-fr Esperanto <-- French 09 june 2014
apertium-es-gl Spanish <-> Galician 06 mar 2018
apertium-es-pt Spanish <-> Portuguese 05 july 2016
apertium-es-ro Spanish <-> Romanian 13 dec 2015
apertium-eu-en Basque --> English 13 dec 2015
apertium-eu-es Basque --> Spanish 13 jan 2016
apertium-fra-cat French <-> Catalan 05 may 2018
apertium-fr-es French <-> Spanish 21 jan 2017
apertium-hbs-eng Serbo-Croatian <-> English 15 oct 2014
apertium-hbs-mkd Serbo-Croatian <-> Macedonian 15 febr 2017
apertium-hbs-slv Serbo-Croatian <-> Slovenian 09 mar 2015
apertium-id-ms Indonesian <-> Malay 04 jan 2016
apertium-isl-eng Icelandic --> English 02 mar 2016
apertium-isl-swe Icelandic <-> Swedish 09 mar 2018
apertium-kaz-rus Kazakh <-> Russian 12 dec 2017
apertium-kaz-tat Kazakh <-> Tatar 11 july 2016
apertium-mkd-bul Macedonian <-> Bulgarian 09 mar 2018
apertium-mkd-eng Macedonian --> English 09 mar 2018
apertium-mlt-ara Maltese <-> Arabic 25 oct 2015
apertium-nno-nob Norwegian Nynorsk <-> Norwegian Bokmål 13 apr 2018
apertium-oc-ca Occitan <-> Catalan 13 dec 2015
apertium-oc-es Occitan <-> Spanish 13 dec 2015
apertium-pt-ca Portuguese <-> Catalan 13 dec 2015
apertium-pt-gl Portuguese <-> Galician 12 may 2015
apertium-rus-ukr Russian <-> Ukrainian 03 oct 2017
apertium-sme-nob Northern Sami --> Norwegian Bokmål 10 may 2018
apertium-spa-arg Spanish <-> Aragonese 31 mar 2018
apertium-spa-ast Spanish <-> Asturian 09 mar 2018
apertium-spa-cat Spanish <-> Catalan 10 may 2018
apertium-spa-ita Spanish <-> Italian 31 aug 2017
apertium-srd-ita Sardinian <-> Italian 24 oct 2017
apertium-swe-dan Swedish <-> Danish 19 oct 2017
apertium-swe-nor Swedish <-- Norwegian 24 sept 2017
apertium-urd-hin Urdu <-> Hindi 04 jan 2016

[edit] Staging

Name of the language pair Name of the language pair Last update
apertium-cat-glg Catalan <-> Galician 18 nov 2016
apertium-fao-nor Faroese -?- Norwegian 20 febr 2018
apertium-fra-por French <-> Portuguese 05 nov 2017
apertium-hbs_HR-hbs_SR Croatian -?- Serbian 28 oct 2016
apertium-mlt-heb Maltese --> Hebrew 18 nov 2016
apertium-pol-ces Polish <-> Czech 24 oct 2017
apertium-scn-spa Sicilian <-> Spanish 14 dec 2016
apertium-tet-por Tetum --> Portuguese 08 july 2013

[edit] Nursery

Name of the language pair Name of the language pair Last update
apertium-bg-en Bulgarian <-> English 09 june 2014
apertium-eng-afr English <-> Afrikaans 11 mar 2018
apertium-eng-deu English <-> German 11 mar 2018
apertium-eng-hin English <-> Hindi 12 jan 2017
apertium-en-pt English <-> Portuguese 09 june 2014
apertium-eo-ru Esperanto -?- Russian 27 mar 2018
apertium-epo-fra Esperanto <-> French 30 jan 2018
apertium-es-cs Spanish <-> Czech 09 june 2014
apertium-es-ssp Spanish --> Spanish signs language 09 june 2014
apertium-fao-isl Faroese <-- Icelandic 11 mar 2018
apertium-fin-deu Finnish <-> German 04 may 2018
apertium-fin-eng Finnish <-> English 15 mar 2018
apertium-fr-it French <-> Italian 09 apr 2015
apertium-ga-gd Irish <-> Scottish Gaelic 09 june 2014
apertium-hbs-rus Serbo-Croatian <-> Russian 21 mar 2016
apertium-hye-eng Armenian --> English 22 jan 2013
apertium-it-pt Italian <-> Portuguese 09 june 2014
apertium-kaz-kir Kazakh <-> Kirghiz 06 may 2018
apertium-kaz-kum Kazakh --> Kumyk 27 july 2014
apertium-nld-fry Dutch <-> Western Frisian 04 june 2013
apertium-nor-eng Norwegian <-> English 25 apr 2016
apertium-pol-ukr Polish <-> Ukrainian 09 mar 2018
apertium-quz-spa Cusco Quechua --> Spanish 26 nov 2014
apertium-ro-it Romanian <-> Italian 09 june 2014
apertium-ron-cat Romanian <-> Catalan 30 apr 2018
apertium-slv-spa Slovenian -?- Spanish 25 june 2016
apertium-sme-fin Northern Sami <-> Finnish 19 apr 2018
apertium-sme-sma Northern Sami <-> Southern Sami 13 apr 2018
apertium-sme-smj Northern Sami <-> Lule Sami 13 apr 2018
apertium-sme-smn Northern Sami <-> Inari Sami 23 apr 2018
apertium-spa-qve Spanish -?- Eastern Apurimac Quechua 22 dec 2016
apertium-tat-bak Tatar <-> Bashkir 22 apr 2018
apertium-tat-rus Tatar --> Russian 09 mar 2015
apertium-tgk-pes Tajik <-> Iranian Persian 04 jan 2016
apertium-tuk-tur Turkmen <-> Turkish 09 june 2014
apertium-tur-aze Turkish --> Azerbaijani 09 june 2014
apertium-tur-kir Turkish <-> Kirghiz 30 nov 2016
apertium-tur-tat Turkish <-> Tatar 30 apr 2018
apertium-tur-uzb Turkish <-> Uzbek 05 jan 2018
apertium-udm-rus Udmurt <-> Russian 20 july 2016

[edit] Incubator

Name of the language pair Name of the language pair Last update
apertium-ara-heb Arabic <-> Hebrew 20 apr 2015
apertium-as-hi Assamese --> Hindi 14 jan 2013
apertium-asm-ben Assamese <-> Bengali 04 jan 2016
apertium-asm-eng Assamese <-> English 04 jan 2016
apertium-ava-rus Avaric --> Russian 09 june 2014
apertium-bg-el Bulgarian --> Modern Greek 10 dec 2010
apertium-bg-ru Bulgarian -?- Russian 06 jan 2011
apertium-bn-en Bengali <-> English 04 jan 2016
apertium-bn-hi Bengali -?- Hindi 29 nov 2010
apertium-bre-cym Breton -?- Welsh 19 apr 2018
apertium-bre-spa Breton -?- Spanish 19 apr 2018
apertium-bua-khk Buriat <-> Khalkha 11 apr 2015
apertium-byv-fra Medumba <-> French 17 mar 2018
apertium-cat-cos Catalan <-> Corsican 05 nov 2013
apertium-cat-ina Catalan <-> Interlingua 07 jan 2016
apertium-ces-ces Czech -?- Czech 04 july 2014
apertium-ces-hbs Czech --> Serbo-Croatian 15 may 2013
apertium-ces-rus Czech <-> Russian 30 june 2017
apertium-ces-slk Czech <-> Slovak 09 june 2014
apertium-chv-rus Chuvash --> Russian 01 apr 2018
apertium-chv-tat Chuvash <-> Tatar 08 apr 2018
apertium-chv-tur Chuvash <-> Turkish 01 dec 2017
apertium-ckb-eng Central Kurdish <-> English 12 oct 2016
apertium-cos-ita Corsican <-> Italian 30 sept 2017
apertium-cs-sl Czech --> Slovenian 10 mar 2013
apertium-cy-es Welsh -?- Spanish 11 oct 2011
apertium-deu-dan German <-> Danish 05 dec 2017
apertium-deu-ina German <-> Interlingua 13 apr 2016
apertium-deu-ltz German <-> Luxembourgish 04 dec 2016
apertium-deu-nld German <-> Dutch 02 mar 2017
apertium-deu-swe German <-> Swedish 01 mar 2017
apertium-ell-eng Modern Greek <-> English 29 sept 2015
apertium-en-ga English <-> Irish 27 nov 2017
apertium-eng-ina English <-> Interlingua 13 jan 2017
apertium-eng-ita English <-> Italian 08 jan 2017
apertium-eng-lvs English <-> Standard Latvian 09 june 2014
apertium-eng-pes English <-> Iranian Persian 11 aug 2015
apertium-eng-sco English <-> Scots 01 apr 2017
apertium-eng-srn English <-> Sranan Tongo 03 sept 2017
apertium-eng-tel English <-> Telugu 27 febr 2015
apertium-en-it English <-> Italian 09 june 2015
apertium-en-lt English -?- Lithuanian 06 dec 2010
apertium-en-mt English -?- Maltese 19 june 2011
apertium-en-nl English <-> Dutch 29 apr 2011
apertium-en-pl English <-> Polish 09 june 2014
apertium-en-sq English --> Albanian 30 aug 2010
apertium-eo-be Esperanto -?- Belarusian 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-bg Esperanto -?- Bulgarian 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-br Esperanto -?- Breton 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-cs Esperanto -?- Czech 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-de Esperanto -?- German 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-el Esperanto -?- Modern Greek 25 dec 2013
apertium-eo-fa Esperanto -?- Persian 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-fi Esperanto -?- Finnish 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-he Esperanto -?- Hebrew 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-hu Esperanto -?- Hungarian 31 dec 2013
apertium-eo-it Esperanto -?- Italian 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-ne Esperanto -?- Nepali 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-nl Esperanto -?- Dutch 04 jan 2014
apertium-eo-pl Esperanto -?- Polish 12 dec 2011
apertium-eo-pt Esperanto -?- Portuguese 24 apr 2014
apertium-eo-sk Esperanto -?- Slovak 19 nov 2010
apertium-eo-sv Esperanto -?- Swedish 04 jan 2014
apertium-eo-tr Esperanto -?- Turkish 12 dec 2011
apertium-es-ia Spanish --> Interlingua 09 june 2014
apertium-est-nor Estonian -?- Norwegian 07 june 2014
apertium-eu-eu_bis Basque <-> code_eu_bis 09 june 2014
apertium-eu-fr Basque --> French 09 june 2014
apertium-eu-hu Basque -?- Hungarian 18 aug 2011
apertium-eus-fin Basque --> Finnish 07 oct 2014
apertium-eus-sme Basque --> Northern Sami 19 apr 2012
apertium-fao-dan Faroese <-> Danish 13 aug 2017
apertium-fin-ces Finnish <-> Czech 14 july 2014
apertium-fin-est Finnish <-> Estonian 18 dec 2017
apertium-fin-fkv Finnish <-> Kven Finnish 28 sept 2016
apertium-fin-fra Finnish <-> French 01 febr 2018
apertium-fin-gle Finnish <-> Irish 24 aug 2014
apertium-fin-hbs Finnish <-> Serbo-Croatian 02 sept 2014
apertium-fin-hun Finnish <-> Hungarian 15 mar 2018
apertium-fin-isl Finnish <-> Icelandic 09 june 2014
apertium-fin-ita Finnish <-> Italian 11 sept 2014
apertium-fin-kaz Finnish <-> Kazakh 19 apr 2018
apertium-fin-olo Finnish <-> Livvi 18 jan 2017
apertium-fin-spa Finnish <-> Spanish 09 june 2016
apertium-fin-swe Finnish <-> Swedish 09 june 2014
apertium-fin-udm Finnish <-> Udmurt 09 june 2014
apertium-fra-eng French <-> English 22 may 2017
apertium-fra-ina French <-> Interlingua 07 jan 2017
apertium-fra-ita French <-> Italian 01 may 2018
apertium-fra-ron French <-> Romanian 15 jan 2015
apertium-fr-nl French <-> Dutch 29 apr 2011
apertium-ga-gv Irish -?- Manx 30 jan 2014
apertium-gle-eng Irish <-> English 01 febr 2016
apertium-grn-spa Guarani <-> Spanish 10 mar 2018
apertium-guc-spa Wayuu <-- Spanish 09 june 2014
apertium-guj-hin Gujarati <-> Hindi 23 mar 2016
apertium-haw-eng Hawaiian <-> English 14 jan 2018
apertium-hin-pan Hindi <-> Punjabi 27 febr 2018
apertium-ht-en Haitian Creole --> English 04 jan 2016
apertium-hun-eng Hungarian --> English 19 jan 2016
apertium-ina-spa Interlingua <-> Spanish 29 dec 2016
apertium-isl-rus Icelandic <-> Russian 09 june 2014
apertium-ita-ita Italian -?- Italian 07 jan 2014
apertium-ita-nor Italian <-> Norwegian 17 mar 2015
apertium-ita-srd Italian -?- Sardinian 13 mar 2013
apertium-kan-mar Kannada <-> Marathi 10 mar 2018
apertium-kaz-kaa Kazakh <-> Kara-Kalpak 29 aug 2014
apertium-kaz-sah Kazakh <-> Yakut 10 may 2018
apertium-kaz-tur Kazakh <-> Turkish 06 may 2018
apertium-kaz-tyv Kazakh <-> Tuvinian 08 nov 2015
apertium-kaz-uig Kazakh <-> Uighur 09 june 2014
apertium-khk-kaz Khalkha <-> Kazakh 09 june 2014
apertium-kir-uzb Kirghiz <-> Uzbek 14 apr 2015
apertium-kmr-eng Kmer <-> English 06 mar 2017
apertium-kpv-fin Komi-Zyrian <-> Finnish 20 mar 2017
apertium-kpv-mhr Komi-Zyrian <-> Mamaa 20 mar 2017
apertium-kv-ru Komi --> Russian 05 jan 2012
apertium-ky-en Kirghiz -?- English 29 june 2011
apertium-la-en Latin -?- English 08 mar 2018
apertium-la-es Latin --> Spanish 09 june 2014
apertium-la-it Latin --> Italian 10 febr 2010
apertium-lat-eng Latin <-> English 18 dec 2017
apertium-liv-fin Liv <-> Finnish 09 june 2014
apertium-lt-lv Lithuanian -?- Latvian 03 dec 2010
apertium-lv-lg Latvian <-> Ganda 09 june 2014
apertium-mal-eng Malayalam <-> English 04 jan 2016
apertium-mar-eng Marathi --> English 12 may 2013
apertium-mar-hin Marathi <-> Hindi 08 mar 2018
apertium-mfe-en Morisyen --> English 19 june 2010
apertium-mkd-sqi Macedonian <-> Albanian 19 mar 2016
apertium-mlt-spa Maltese --> Spanish 09 june 2014
apertium-mrj-fin Western Mari <-> Finnish 09 june 2014
apertium-myv-fin Erzya <-> Finnish 09 june 2014
apertium-myv-mdf Erzya <-> Moksha 11 may 2017
apertium-ne-en Nepali <-> English 09 june 2014
apertium-nog-kaz Nogai -?- Kazakh 29 sept 2013
apertium-oci-fra Occitan <-> French 10 may 2018
apertium-olo-fin Livvi <-> Finnish 08 nov 2015
apertium-pes-eng Iranian Persian <-> English 08 may 2017
apertium-pes-glk Iranian Persian --> Gilaki 17 july 2014
apertium-pl-csb Polish <-> Kashubian 08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-dsb Polish -?- Lower Sorbian 26 dec 2010
apertium-pl-eo Polish -?- Esperanto 30 oct 2010
apertium-pl-hsb Polish -?- Upper Sorbian 08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-lt Polish -?- Lithuanian 08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-lv Polish -?- Latvian 08 mar 2018
apertium-pl-sk Polish <-> Slovak 31 oct 2013
apertium-pol-hbs Polish -?- Serbo-Croatian 24 aug 2014
apertium-pol-rus Polish <-> Russian 30 may 2017
apertium-por-cat Portuguese <-> Catalan 22 jan 2016
apertium-por-ina Portuguese <-> Interlingua 18 mar 2016
apertium-ron-ina Romanian <-> Interlingua 08 jan 2014
apertium-ron-rup Romanian -?- Aromanian 24 nov 2013
apertium-ru-cu Russian -?- Church Slavic 14 july 2009
apertium-rus-eng Russian -?- English 18 may 2014
apertium-sah-eng Yakut -?- English 18 mar 2015
apertium-sc-pt Sardinian -?- Portuguese 28 oct 2010
apertium-si-en Sinhalese <-> English 09 june 2014
apertium-sjo-eng Xibe --> English 09 nov 2014
apertium-sl-mk Slovenian <-> Macedonian 09 june 2014
apertium-slv-ita Slovenian <-> Italian 04 jan 2016
apertium-slv-pol Slovenian -?- Polish 10 mar 2013
apertium-sma-nob Southern Sami <-> Norwegian Bokmål 25 sept 2015
apertium-sme-deu Northern Sami -?- German 19 apr 2012
apertium-sme-est Northern Sami <-> Estonian 22 june 2017
apertium-sme-spa Northern Sami -?- Spanish 19 apr 2012
apertium-smj-nob Lule Sami <-> Norwegian Bokmål 25 sept 2015
apertium-snd-hin Sindhi <-> Hindi 19 oct 2015
apertium-spa-cos Spanish <-> Corsican 16 dec 2016
apertium-spa-deu Spanish <-> German 26 aug 2016
apertium-spa-pol Spanish <-> Polish 01 nov 2016
apertium-swa-eng Swahili -?- English 17 dec 2016
apertium-swe-eng Swedish <-> English 17 dec 2016
apertium-sw-rn Swahili --> Rundi 11 apr 2011
apertium-tat-eng Tatar --> English 24 apr 2018
apertium-tat-kir Tatar -?- Kirghiz 29 dec 2013
apertium-tel-mar Telugu <-> Marathi 07 jan 2015
apertium-tgl-ceb Tagalog -?- Cebuano 04 may 2011
apertium-tha-eng Thai <-> English 03 dec 2016
apertium-tha-lao Thai <-> Lao 16 apr 2017
apertium-tr-en Turkish <-- English 18 oct 2010
apertium-tur-fin Turkish <-> Finnish 21 july 2016
apertium-udm-kpv Udmurt <-> Komi-Zyrian 09 may 2018
apertium-uig-tur Uighur <-> Turkish 10 may 2018
apertium-urd-pan Urdu -?- Punjabi 16 apr 2018
apertium-urd-snd Urdu <-> Sindhi 08 nov 2015
apertium-uzb-kaa Uzbek <-> Kara-Kalpak 17 sept 2015
apertium-vi-en Vietnamese --> English 08 mar 2018
apertium-vro-est Võro <-> Estonian 18 apr 2017
apertium-zh_CN-zh_TW Simplified Chinese --> Traditional Chinese 29 mar 2010
apertium-zho-spa Chinese <-> Spanish 28 mar 2017
apertium-zul-ssw Zulu <-> Swati 05 july 2014
apertium-zu-xh Zulu -?- Xhosa 08 nov 2010
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