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The Celtic languages (cel) include Welsh (cy), Breton (br), Cornish (kw), Irish (ga), Manx (gv), and Scottish Gaelic (gd). Most commonly spoken on the north-western edge of Europe, the languages are related with varying levels of mutual intelligibility.

The master plan involves generating independent finite-state transducers for each language, and then making individual dictionaries and transfer rules for every pair. The current status of these goals is listed below.


The ultimate goal is to have multi-purposable transducers for a variety of Celtic languages. These can then be paired for X→Y translation with the addition of a CG for language X and transfer rules / dictionary for the pair X→Y. Below is listed development progress for each language's transducers and dictionary pairs.


Once a transducer has ~80% coverage on a range of medium-large corpora we can say it is "working". Over 90% and it can be considered to be "production". Coverage (Note: This is a naïve estimation (words for which an analysis is given / all words), "hidden unknown words" are not taken into account) is calculated over a general corpus of the language, followed by Wikipedia in parentheses.

name language native name grouping ISO 639 formalism state stems paradigms coverage location primary authors
-2 -3
apertium-cym Welsh Cymraeg Brythonic cy cym lttoolbox production 95.8% (86.6%) apertium-cy-en (trunk) Fran, Jim, donnek
apertium-bre Breton Brezhoneg Brythonic br bre lttoolbox working 89.0% (88.1%) apertium-br-fr (trunk) Fran, fulupjakez, guillaumebzh, drevalan
apertium-gle Irish Gaeilge Goidelic ga gle lttoolbox development ? apertium-ga-gd (nursery) Fran, Jim, fulupjakez, skburke
apertium-gla Scottish Gaelic Gàidhlig Goidelic gd gla lttoolbox development ? apertium-ga-gd (nursery) Fran, Jim, fulupjakez, jg18, skburke
apertium-glv Manx Gaelg Goidelic gv glv lttoolbox development ? apertium-ga-gv (incubator) Fran, Jim, cos, skburke
apertium-cor Cornish Kernewek Brythonic kw cor lttoolbox prototype ? apertium-cy-kw (incubator) Fran, Jim

Existing language pairs[edit]

Text in italic denotes language pairs under development / in the incubator. Regular text denotes a functioning language pair in staging, while text in bold denotes a stable well-working language pair in trunk.

cym bre cor gle gla glv
cym - br-cy
bre br-cy
cor -
gle - ga-gd
gla ga-gd
glv ga-gv
eng cy-en
epo eo-br
fra br-fr
spa cy-es


Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Language Text
Irish Saolaítear na daoine uile saor agus comhionann ina ndínit agus ina gcearta. Tá bua an réasúin agus an choinsiasa acu agus dlíd iad féin d'iompar de mheon bráithreachas i leith a chéile.
Manx Ta dagh ooilley pheiagh ruggit seyr as corrym ayns ard-cheim as kiartyn. Ren Jee feoiltaghey resoon as cooinsheanse orroo as by chair daue ymmyrkey ry cheilley myr braaraghyn.
Scottish Gaelic Tha gach uile dhuine air a bhreth saor agus co-ionnan ann an urram 's ann an còirichean. Tha iad air am breth le reusan is le cogais agus mar sin bu chòir dhaibh a bhith beò nam measg fhein ann an spiorad bràthaireil.
Breton Dieub ha par en o dellezegezh hag o gwirioù eo ganet an holl dud. Poell ha skiant zo dezho ha dleout a reont bevañ an eil gant egile en ur spered a genvreudeuriezh.
Cornish Pub den oll yw genys frank ha kehaval yn dynita ha gwiryow. Yth yns i enduys gans reson ha cowses hag y tal dhedhans gwul dhe udn orth y gila yn spyrys a vredereth.
Welsh Genir pawb yn rhydd ac yn gydradd â'i gilydd mewn urddas a hawliau. Fe'u cynysgaeddir â rheswm a chydwybod, a dylai pawb ymddwyn y naill at y llall mewn ysbryd cymodlon.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Celtic languages", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

See also[edit]