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Kazakh - қазақ тілі
language transducer
Coverage: ~94.5%
Stems: 35,273
Vanilla stems: 26,257
Location: apertium-kaz (languages)
Families: Turkic languages
Areas: Languages of Central Asia, Languages of the former Soviet Union
Lang info Kazakh

Apertium-kaz is a morphological analyser/generator and CG tagger for Kazakh, currently under development. It is intended to be compatible with transducers for other Turkic languages so that they can be translated between. It's used in the following language pairs:

[edit] Installation

Apertium-kaz is currently located in languages/apertium-kaz.

[edit] Dependency tree

  • hfst (svn ≥r1916)
  • apertium
    • lttoolbox
  • VISL-CG3

[edit] For spell checking

If you're compiling the apertium-kaz spell checker, you'll additionally need these dependencies:

  • hfst-ospell (./configure --enable-zhfst)
    • see Installation, it is installable from Tino's repositories
  • corevoikko/libvoikko/src/tools/voikkospell (./configure --enable-hfst)

You'll want to configure apertium-kaz with --enable-ospell and then after making it, copy kaz.zhfst to ~/.voikko/3/kk.zhfst

Then you can do this:

$ echo "қазақша билмеймін" | tr ' ' '\n' | voikkospell -d kk -s
C: қазақша
W: билмеймін
S: билеймін
S: білмеймін
S: билемеймін
S: бөлмеймін
S: билемейміз

[edit] Current State

  • Number of stems: 35,273
  • Disambiguation rules: 136
  • Coverage: ~94.5%

Әуезов 155K ~92.89%
bible 577K ~95.29%
azattyq2010 3.2M ~95.07%
wp2013 18.2M ~90.10%
quran 107K ~96.71%
udhr 1.5K ~96.86%

[edit] Developers

We have several language pairs involving Kazakh, and in every pair there is a lexc, twol and rlx file for this language. But we don't work on these files directly. Instead, we edit kaz.lexc, kaz.twol and kaz.rlx files located in apertium-kaz, and then import these files to the language pair directories using a script (update-morphs.bash in language-pair directories). This script merely copies twol and rlx files, since they don't have to be tweaked to a particular language pair, but "trimms" the lexc file leaving only that stems in it, which are also found in the bilingual dictionary of the pair importing is made to.

For further details on how these works and a step-by-step guide (taking the Kazakh-Tatar pair as an example), see Kazakh_and_Tatar#Development_workflow.

A natural consequence of this approach is that any change made to apertium-kaz will affect all other Kazakh-to-X or X-to-Kazakh language pairs. This requires some rules to be followed. Here are some of them.

  1. Do not change tags or order of tags and don't do any other change wich certainly will break things in other pairs without discussing it first on the apertium-turkic mailing list (or notifying others via the list if you are absolutely sure that this change was necessary (e.g. it was discussed earlier and hence was due));
  2. If you encounter a word in the lexc which seems to be miscategorized, or some multiword which in reality is a combination of two lexemes (like барлық жерде from the example above), do not delete them! Mark them with Use/MT instead.
  3. Write descriptive commit messages.

[edit] Guidelines for adding stems

[edit] General

  • Before adding a stem, be sure it does not already exist in lexc.
  • Provide a commit message saying what you did. At a bare minimum, "adding more stems" is okay, but "a" or "ф" is not. Try to be more informative though; e.g. "added stems from story, mostly NP-TOP and NP-ANT" or similar.
  • Many stems exhibit a voicing alternation like п/б, к/г, қ/ғ. This is processed automatically by twol, but these stems must be added with the voiceless consonant (п, к, қ), e.g тақ:тақ V-TV ;
    • Stems from Russian that end with one of the voiced consonants (б, г), such as геолог should be entered as spelled, but should be put in the right category for foreign words (e.g., if a noun, then N5).
  • Words that have an inserted ‹ы› or ‹і› in some forms should get %{y%} in that spot on the right side, e.g. орын:ор%{y%}н N1 ;.
    • Words that are commonly written in both forms (e.g., орнында and орынында) need special treatment: add ! Dir/LR after the form that should not be generated (i.e., the form that is the non-normative version), and add ! Err/Orth after it too if it should be considered a spelling mistake.
  • Any changes to continuation classes should be discussed on the apertium-turkic mailing list.

[edit] Verbs

  • Categorise correctly according to IV or TV status:
    • IV = intransitive verbs; TV = transitive verbs
    • If the verb can take a direct object with -НЫ, then it's not IV; otherwise it is
    • For phrasal verbs (e.g,. "қабыл ал", "пайда бол", "мойынға ал"), do not categorise it according to its elements; instead treat it as a single verb (TV, IV, TV).
  • There should be no infinitival final -у or -ю. It is best to take the part of the verb before -GAн or -DI in those forms.
    • Infinitives ending in -ю should end in ‹й› instead, e.g ‹сүю› should be entered as сүй
    • Some verbs have a "hidden" ‹ы› or ‹і› under the ‹у›, for example ері, аршы, аңды, etc. These verb stems should be added with the ‹ы› or ‹і›.
    • Of course, verbs with ‹у› in the stem should keep the ‹у›, like жу, қу, жау, etc.
  • Do not add passive or cooperative forms of verb stems (e.g., ‹тартыл› is passive of ‹тарт›, and ‹тартыс› is cooperative) unless absolutely needed for translation. In this case, put ! Use/MT ! Der/Pass or ! Use/MT ! Der/Coop after the entry, respectively.
  • If you add a causative form of a verb (e.g., ‹отырғыз› is causative of ‹отыр›), put ! Der/Caus after it.

[edit] Nouns

  • Some nouns end in ‹ә›, and have interesting or inconsistent-looking phonology, like күнә, кінә. These should be added with the right side missing its ‹ә› and in the class N1-Ә. E.g., күнә:күн N1-Ә ;
  • Nouns from Russian should be classified as N5
    • especially if the last vowel is ‹и› or ‹у›
    • especially if they end with a consonant that would normally be voiced before a vowel-initial suffix in Kazakh words (п, к)
  • Nouns that are compounds ending in a possessive form (like ‹ауа райы›) should be categorised into the N-COMPOUND-PX category and entered without the possessive ending on the right side, e.g. ауа% райы:ауа% рай N-COMPOUND-PX ; ! "weather,climate"
  • If you're adding a noun that can also be used as an adjective, think whether it's actually an adjective or actually a noun and add it to the right category. You'll want to subcategorise it correctly so that e.g. if it's a noun it can also take the <attr> tag.

[edit] Adjectives

  • The basic categorisation of adjectives depends on whether it takes comparative morphology (-ЫрАҚ), can be substantivised (acts like a noun), and/or can be adverbialised (acts like an adverb). Be sure to put the adjective in the right category according what those categories allow.
  • If you're adding an adjective that can also be used as a noun, think whether it's actually an adjective or actually a noun and add it to the right category. You'll want to subcategorise it correctly so that e.g. if it's an adjective it can also take the <subst> tag.

[edit] Adverbs

  • If you want to add an adverb, first think whether the word is really an adjective that can be used like an adverb. If this is the case, then add it as an adjective in the appropriate adjective class that can take the <advl> tag. In the bidix, you'll want to translate the <adj> and the <adj><advl> forms differently.
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