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Family: Indo-Aryan
ISO Codes: ks / kas / kas
Incubator: apertium-kas
Language pairs: {{{pairs}}}

Kashmiri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Kashmir Valley and regions around it that were historically a part of various kingdoms based in Kashmir. Kashmiri shares some common vocabulary with other Indo-Aryan languages of India and Pakistan such as Hindi and Punjabi, yet, probably due to its unique isolationist topography and history, has developed features of its own, such as a word order (syntax) different from the usual SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) found in Indo-Aryan languages, a sound system which features contrastive palatalisation of nearly all consonants and an extensive system of vowels.[1]

Letters and Encoding[edit]

Kashmiri today is mostly written in a variant of the Arabic script, with a number of adaptations. This link details two unique Unicode characters (half-ye 0620 ؠ and wavy hamza under 065F ٟ ) for Kashmiri, and a reference used in the document is helpful for understanding the orthography. This document is also useful for nomenclature and lookup but unfortunately copying the characters does not work as it should.


The script is not phonemic and also very difficult to input and read even for someone comfortable with standard Arabic script. It will be prudent to use some sort of transcription script to read and especially write in a shell environment.

Android tends to render the script well, and Gboard has a Kashmiri Arabic keyboard. In a fix this could also be a method for input.


Texts in Kashmiri are full of characters with the same shape and different encodings. It is an urgent need to figure out the correct encoding for each one and have the others interpreted as this character.

One should make liberal use of hexdumps and lookups, as looking up the arabic letter "noon" results in 78 different characters.


It might be worth looking into using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, as in this paper.

Related Work[edit]

Kashmiri Language Websites[edit]

Other Corpora[edit]


  • Resources compiled by the Kashmiri Pandit Network (Includes structured course versions of some grammars, with recordings)
  • Various grammars by Omkar Koul:
    • Modern Kashmiri Grammar
    • Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course
    • Kashmiri: A Cognitive-Descriptive Grammar


  • Grierson Dictionary (1932, in Devanagari and latin, can query online)
    • Some editions of the dictionary itself have Perso-Arabic, downloading from archive.org could be useful
  • Hassan Dictionary (2010, only latin, can query online, has recordings)
  • Kaesher Lugaat - Shafi Shauq (Modern dictionary produced by the Academy, nastaliq, tricky to find)
  • Kashir Dictionary - Tousikhani (7 volumes)
  • Kashmiri-English Dictionary - Omkar N. Koul
  • Persian/Tajik-Kashmiri-English dictionary - Jān, Jī. Ār


  • A Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs - Omkar N. Koul


Potential Students for GSoC 2019[edit]

  • Rurik - Kashmiri-Hindi?
  •  ?