Turkic languages

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The Turkic languages include Turkish, Azeri, Uzbek, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Chuvash, Turkmen, Bashkir, Sakha, and several dozen other languages. The languages are related with varying levels of mutual intelligibility. Our goal is to enhance MT coverage of them with apertium.

The ultimate master plan involves generating independent finite-state transducers for each language, and then making individual dictionaries and transfer rules for every pair. The current status of these goals is listed below.


The ultimate goal is to have multi-purposable transducers for a variety of Turkic languages. These can then be paired for X→Y translation with the addition of a CG for language X and transfer rules / dictionary for the pair X→Y. Below is listed development progress for each language's transducers and dictionary pairs.


Once a transducer has ~80% coverage on a range of corpora we can say it is "working". Over 90% and it can be considered to be "production".

name Language ISO 639 formalism state stems coverage location primary authors
-2 -3
trmorph Turkish tr tur SFST production 37,300 ~90.6% Çağri
kymorph Kyrgyz ky kir HFST (lexc+twol) working 8,564 ~87.3% apertium-tr-ky (trunk) Jonathan, Mirlan, Fran
turmorph Turkish tr tur HFST (lexc+twol) development 10,971 ~91.1% turmorph (branches) Gianluca
kazmorph Kazakh kk kaz HFST (lexc+twol) development 9,306 94.1 apertium-ky-kk (incubator) Nathan, Jonathan, Fran
baqmorph Bashkir ba bak HFST (lexc+twol) development 2,827 ~66% apertium-tt-ba (nursery) Fran, Jonathan, Milli
tatmorph Tatar tt tat HFST (lexc+twol) development 7,246 ~84.7% apertium-tt-ba (nursery) Fran, Jonathan, Milli
chvmorph Chuvash cv chv HFST (lexc+twol) development 8,579 ~85% apertium-cv-tr (incubator) Hèctor
azmorph Azerbaijani az aze SFST working? apertium-tr-az (trunk) Gianluca


Table of dix progress

Turkic-Turkic pairs

Text in italic denotes language pairs under development / in the incubator. Regular text denotes a functioning language pair in trunk, while text in bold denotes a stable well-working language pair.

tr az tk uz ky kk tt cv ba ug
tr tr-az tr-ky tr-tt tr-cv
az az-tr
ky ky-tr ky-kk
kk kk-ky kk-tt
tt tt-tr tt-kk tt-ba
cv cv-tr
ba ba-tt

Pairs with non-Turkic languages

tr az tk uz ky kk tt cv ba ug
en tr-en ky-en
ru cv-ru
mn mn-kk


Rough guide to tagsets in various Turkic language transducers, with an eye to keeping stuff that is basically the same tagged the same. In the following table, A stands for Apertium and T stands for TRmorph (See also the general tagset list).

Phenomenon Morphology Description Tag(s) Language(s) Notes
Part of speech
Noun <n>
Proper noun <np>
Determiner <det>
Numeral <num>
Adjective <adj>
Predicative <pred> Turkish: var, yok
Adverb <adv>
Pronoun <prn>
Verb <v>
Auxiliary verb <vaux>
Copula <cop>
Adverb <adv>
Postadverb <postadv>
Postposition <post>a <postp>t
Particle[1] <part>
Coordinating conjunction <cnjcoo>
Subordinating conjunction <cnjsub>
Adverbial conjunction <cnjadv>
Abbreviation <abbr>
Interjection <ij>
Proper noun types
Toponym <top>
Anthroponym <ant>
Cognomen (Surname) <cog>
Acronym <acr>
Other <al>
Pronoun types
Personal <pers>
Ordinal <ord>
Demonstrative <dem>
Indefinite <ind>
Interrogative <itg>
Reflexive <ref>
Existential <exi>
Quantifier <qnt>
Positive <pst>
Negative <neg>
Comparative <comp>
Collective-numeral <coll>
Reciprocal <recip>
First person <p1>
Second person <p2>
Third person <p3>
Numeral types
Substantive Substantive form of numerals (when they are used as the head of the noun phrase) <subst>
Ordinal <ord> Chuvash: -мĂш
Distributive <dist> Chuvash: -шĂр
Collective <coll> Chuvash: -Ăн
Nominative case (unmarked) <nom>
Genitive case <gen>
Dative case <dat>
Locative case <loc>
Ablative case -DAn Case indicating movement away <abl> Pan-turkic
Instrumental case <ins>
Private case <priv> Chuvash: сĂр
Terminative case <term>
Final (Purposive) case <fin> Chuvash: шĂн
Allative (Directive) case <all> Chuvash: АллА
1st pers sg <px1sg>
1st pers pl <px1pl>
2nd pers sg <px2sg>
2nd pers pl <px2pl>
3rd pers sg <px3sg>
3rd pers pl <px3pl>
3rd pers sg or pl <px3sp>
Masculine <m>
Feminine <f>
Masculine / feminine <mf>
Singular <sg>
Plural <pl>
Tense, aspect, mood
Present tense <pres>
Present continuous tense <cont> Turkish: -{bI}yor
Evidential tenseless <evid> Turkish: -m{I}ş (<past><evid>)
Past tense <past> Kyrgyz: -{G}{A}н
Definite past tense <ifi> Turkish: -{D}{I}
Imperfect <pii> Turkish: Aorist + -m{A}kt{A}
Past habitual tense <pih> Turkish: Aorist + -{D}{I}
Future tense <fut> Turkish: -{bY}{A}c{A}{k}
Imperative Mood for giving orders <imp>A, <t_imp>T Pan-turkic Turkish: -ø
Conditional <cond> Turkish: -s{A}
Aorist <aor> Turkish: -{A}r or -{bI}r
Optative <opt> Turkish: -{bY}{A}, Kirghiz: -мAк>чI
Obligative <oblig> Turkish: -m{A}l{I}
Potential <pot> Kirghiz: -чUдAй
Not-yet tense <notyet> Kirghiz: -E элек
Non-finite verb forms
Gerund makes verbs usable as nouns <ger>, <vn>?
Verbal adjective makes verbs usable as adjectives <vadj>
Participle makes verb a matrix verb usable auxiliaries and modals <part>, <vadv>?
??? makes verb usable as first of a dual-predicate construction ??
Infinitive citation form of verb and use in certain constructions <inf>?
Gerund #1 <ger1> Turkish: -m{A}
Gerund #2 <ger2> Turkish: -m{A}{K}
Gerund #3 <ger3> Turkish: -{D}{I}{k}
Gerund #4 <ger4> Turkish: -{bY}{I}ş
Gerund #5 <ger5> Turkish: -{bY}{A}n
Gerund #6 <ger6> Turkish: -{bY}{A}r{A}k
Gerund #7 <fger> Turkish: -{bY}{I}p
Future gerund #1 <ger1> Turkish: -{bY}{A}c{A}{k}
Imperfect participle #1 <fger> Turkish: -{bY}{A}r{A}{k}
Productive verbal derivation
Passive <pass>
Causative <caus>
Cooperative <coop>
Transitive, переходный <tv>
Intransitive, непереходный <iv>


  1. Warning: The use of the particle tag is highly discouraged.