Difference between revisions of "Celtic languages"

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Revision as of 00:19, 15 December 2014

En français

The Celtic languages (cel) include Welsh (cy), Breton (br), Cornish (kw), Irish (ga), Manx (gv), and Scottish Gaelic (gd). Most commonly spoken on the north-western edge of Europe, the languages are related with varying levels of mutual intelligibility.

The master plan involves generating independent finite-state transducers for each language, and then making individual dictionaries and transfer rules for every pair. The current status of these goals is listed below.


The ultimate goal is to have multi-purposable transducers for a variety of Celtic languages. These can then be paired for X→Y translation with the addition of a CG for language X and transfer rules / dictionary for the pair X→Y. Below is listed development progress for each language's transducers and dictionary pairs.


Once a transducer has ~80% coverage on a range of medium-large corpora we can say it is "working". Over 90% and it can be considered to be "production".

name language native name grouping ISO 639 formalism state stems paradigms coverage location primary authors
-2 -3
apertium-cym Welsh Cymraeg Brythonic cy cym lttoolbox production 11,015 702 ~91.2% apertium-cy-en (trunk) Fran, Jim, donnek
apertium-bre Breton Brezhoneg Brythonic br bre lttoolbox working 18,353 463 ~88.6% apertium-br-fr (trunk) Fran, fulupjakez, guillaumebzh, drevalan
apertium-gle Irish Gaeilge Goidelic ga gle lttoolbox development 8,768 1,155 apertium-ga-gd (nursery), apertium-gle (incubator) Fran, Jim, fulupjakez, skburke
apertium-glv Manx Gaelg Goidelic gv glv lttoolbox development 11,353 312 apertium-ga-gv (incubator) Fran, Jim, cos, skburke
apertium-gla Scottish Gaelic Gàidhlig Goidelic gd gla lttoolbox prototype 117 77 apertium-gla (languages) Fran, Jim, fulupjakez, jg18, skburke
apertium-cor Cornish Kernewek Brythonic kw cor lttoolbox prototype 322 132 apertium-cy-kw (incubator) Fran, Jim

Existing language pairs

Text in italic denotes language pairs under development / in the incubator. Regular text denotes a functioning language pair in staging, while text in bold denotes a stable well-working language pair in trunk.

cym bre cor gle gla glv
cym - br-cy
bre br-cy
cor -
gle - ga-gd
gla ga-gd
glv ga-gv
eng cy-en
epo eo-br
fra br-fr
spa cy-es
fin fin-gle


Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Language Text
Irish Saolaítear na daoine uile saor agus comhionann ina ndínit agus ina gcearta. Tá bua an réasúin agus an choinsiasa acu agus dlíd iad féin d'iompar de mheon bráithreachas i leith a chéile.
Manx Ta dagh ooilley pheiagh ruggit seyr as corrym ayns ard-cheim as kiartyn. Ren Jee feoiltaghey resoon as cooinsheanse orroo as by chair daue ymmyrkey ry cheilley myr braaraghyn.
Scottish Gaelic Tha gach uile dhuine air a bhreth saor agus co-ionnan ann an urram 's ann an còirichean. Tha iad air am breth le reusan is le cogais agus mar sin bu chòir dhaibh a bhith beò nam measg fhein ann an spiorad bràthaireil.
Breton Dieub ha par en o dellezegezh hag o gwirioù eo ganet an holl dud. Poell ha skiant zo dezho ha dleout a reont bevañ an eil gant egile en ur spered a genvreudeuriezh.
Cornish Pub den oll yw genys frank ha kehaval yn dynita ha gwiryow. Yth yns i enduys gans reson ha cowses hag y tal dhedhans gwul dhe udn orth y gila yn spyrys a vredereth.
Welsh Genir pawb yn rhydd ac yn gydradd â'i gilydd mewn urddas a hawliau. Fe'u cynysgaeddir â rheswm a chydwybod, a dylai pawb ymddwyn y naill at y llall mewn ysbryd cymodlon.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Celtic languages", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


This table summarizes the vulnerability of various Celtic languages. Data is derived from the ‘Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, © UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/culture/languages-atlas’ and Ethnologue.

Language ISO639-3 Location Speakers Status
Ethnologue UNESCO
Cornish cor United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 0 9 (Dormant) 4 (Critically endangered)
Manx glv Isle of Man & United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 0 8b (Nearly extinct) 4 (Critically endangered)
Breton bre France 225,000 8a (Moribund) 3 (Severely endangered)
Irish gle Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 106,210 6b (Threatened) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Gaelic, Scottish gla United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 63,130 4 (Educational) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Welsh cym United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 536,890 2 (Provincial) 1 (Vulnerable)

See also