Using weights for ambiguous rules

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The Idea[edit]

The idea is to allow old apertium transfer rules to be ambiguous i.e. allow a set of rules to match the same general input pattern. This is more effective than the existing situation wherein the first rule in the XML transfer files takes exclusive precedence and blocks out all its ambiguous peers during the transfer precompilation stage, often leading to inaccurate translation. To achieve this, the transfer module would use a set of predefined or pre-trained (more specific) weighted patterns provided for each group of ambiguous rules. This way, if a specific pattern matches with multiple transfer rules, the rule with the largest weight for that pattern is applied.

If no weighted patterns are matched, then the first rule in XML transfer file that matches the general pattern is still considered the default one and is applied.

The module (apertium-ambiguous) can be found at

Configure, build and install[edit]

cd to apertium-ambiguous before you run the commands is shown below


How to use apertium-ambiguous for your language pair[edit]

For this tutorial, we will be using the language pair apertium-kaz-tur

Download a wikimedia dump[edit]

Download a Wikipedia dump from

$ wget

To use any other language, simply replace the occurrences of 'kk' with the 2-letter code of your language.

Next, extract the text using WikiExtractor script:

$ git clone

$ cd WikiExtractor

$ python3 --infn ../kkwiki-latest-pages-articles.xml.bz2  

The extracted file will be named as wiki.txt in the current directory which you are already working on and you are going to use it with other steps of the project.

Install segmenter[edit]

Install Kazakh segmenter from

For using pragmatic_segmenter you need to do the following steps:

  1. Download Ruby 2.3 by running sudo apt-get install ruby-full
  2. Run gem install pragmatic_segmenter

This piece of code uses the segmenter to segment a corpus file and output the segmented sentences into a file. The sentenceTokenizer.rb, which is located at

require 'pragmatic_segmenter'[1]).each do |line1|
	line1.delete! ('\\\(\)\[\]\{\}\<\>\|\$\/\'\"')
    ps = line1, language: ARGV[0], doc_type: 'txt')
    sentences = ps.segment[2], "a") do |line2|
        sentences.each { |sentence| line2.puts sentence }

Breaking corpus into sentences using the ruby program sentenceTokenizer.rb built on the pragmatic segmenter.

ruby2.3 sentenceTokenizer.rb $langCode $inputFile sentences.txt

For example:
ruby2.3 sentenceTokenizer.rb kk wiki.txt sentences.txt

langcode for Kazakh kk, inputFile is Kazakh corpus, and sentences.txt is a segmented sentences.

Apertium language pairs modules[edit]

You need apertium and the language pair installed for using language modules. The steps below just show how the apertium modules for getting desired output which will used by apertium-ambiguous. Apertium pair parent directory path(apertium-kaz-tur). If it's in your home directory then we expect $HOME.

To apply the apertium tool biltrans on the segmented sentences:

apertium -d $pairPar/apertium-$pairCode $pairCode-biltrans sentences.txt biltrans.txt

For example
apertium -d $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur kaz-tur-biltrans sentences.txt biltrans.txt

To apply the apertium tool lextor on the output of the biltrans:

lrx-proc -m $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur/kaz-tur.autolex.bin inFilePath > outFilePath

For example
lrx-proc -m $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur/kaz-tur.autolex.bin biltrans.txt > lextor.txt

To run rules-applier program

./rules-applier localeId transferFile.t1x sentences.txt lextor.txt rulesOut.txt

For example
./rules-applier kk_KZ $HOME/transferFile.t1x sentences.txt lextor.txt rulesOut.txt
localeId= ICU localeId for the source language, sentences.txt= source language sentences, rulesOut.txt= output file of your results 

To apply the apertium tool interchunk into rulesOut.txt file:

apertium-interchunk $pairPar/apertium-$pairCode/apertium-$pairCode.$pairCode.t2x $pairPar/apertium-$pairCode/$pairCode.t2x.bin rulesOut.txt interchunk.txt

For example
apertium-interchunk $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur/apertium-kaz-tur.kaz-tur.t2x $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur/kaz-tur.t2x.bin rulesOut.txt interchunk.txt

To apply the apertium tool postchunk to the interchunk output file:

apertium-postchunk $pairPar/apertium-$pairCode/apertium-$pairCode.$pairCode.t3x $pairPar/apertium-$pairCode/$pairCode.t3x.bin interchunk.txt postchunk.txt

For example
apertium-postchunk $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur/apertium-kaz-tur.kaz-tur.t3x $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur/kaz-tur.t3x.bin interchunk.txt postchunk.txt

To apply the apertium tool transfer to the postchunk output file

  1. INPUT: Outputof the postchunk module
  2. OUTPUT: Morphologically generated sentences in the target language

apertium-transfer -n $pairPar/apertium-$pairCode/apertium-$pairCode.$pairCode.t4x $pairPar/apertium-$pairCode/$pairCode.t4x.bin postchunk.txt | lt-proc -g $pairPar/apertium-$pairCode/$pairCode.autogen.bin | lt-proc -p $pairPar/apertium-$pairCode/$pairCode.autopgen.bin > transfer.txt

For example
apertium-transfer -n $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur/apertium-kaz-tur.kaz-tur.t4x $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur/kaz-tur.t4x.bin postchunk.txt | lt-proc -g $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur/kaz-tur.autogen.bin | lt-proc -p $HOME/apertium-kaz-tur/kaz-tur.autopgen.bin > transfer.txt

Install and build kenlm[edit]

Download and install kenlm by the following steps under 'USAGE' at

Download a big Turkish corpus from wikidumps:

$ wget 

For training, you should follow these steps:

  1. Estimating: run bin/lmplz -o 5 <text >
  2. Querying: run bin/build_binary text.binary

Python script ( used to score target language's sentences with language model, it can be found at

For running model weight program on the transfer file as it is explained in bash script by this command:

python arpa_or_binary_LM_file target_lang_file weights_file

For example
python2 text.binary target-sentences.txt weights.txt

Install and build yasmet[edit]

Downloading and compiling yasmet by doing the following:

Download yasmet either from or from

To build and compile, follow steps below:

  1. g++ -o yasmet
  2. ./yasmet

(If the compilation doesn't work, try:

  1. g++ -o yasmet -std=gnu++98


$mv yasmet ./apertium-ambiguous

Running yasmet-formatter to prepare yasmet datasets. Also this will generate the analysis output file , beside the best model weighting translations(scoring with language model) in file modelWeight.txt, and random translations(choosing applying rule randomly form transfer file) in file randomWeight.txt.

To apply yasmet-formatter program

./yasmet-formatter $localeId transferFile.t1x sentences.txt lextor.txt transfer.txt weights.txt $outputFile $datasets

For example
./yasmet-formatter kk_KZ transferFile.t1x sentences.txt lextor.txt transfer.txt weights.txt sentences.out datasets

Training and Testing apertium-ambiguous[edit]


./yasmet-formatter  icu-locale-id  transfer-file-path  sentences-file-path  lextor-file-path transfer-out-file-path(postchunk2-out)  model-weights  output-file-path  datasets-folder-name

For example

./yasmet-formatter kk_KZ transferFile.t1x test.txt lextor.txt transfer.txt weights.txt test.out datasets

Generate the yasmet models form yasmet datasets either using bash file or doing it manually, actually by running one of the commands.


bash datasets models

./yasmet < dataset-path > model-path


Running beam search with beam = beam_number in the sentencesFile , writing its results into file "BeamSearch-k.txt".

./beam-search localeId transferFile.tx1 sentencesFile lextorFile transferOutFile modelsFolder k1 k2 k3 ...

For example 
./beam-search kk_KZ transferFile.t1x test.txt lextor.txt transfer.txt models 2 4 8 10 

test.txt= test.text(source language text(Kazakh)), output-file= BeamSearch-2.txt, BeamSearch-4.txt.., and k= 2 4 8 10 or any number.

Enjoy using apertium-ambiguous :)