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- Gnomic is about general truths, devoid of time references.
- e.g. "Teachers write lessons." / ... / "I like rain." / "Salespeople buy lots of cars."
- Habitual is about events that occur regularly.
- e.g. "The teacher writes an exercise every day." / "It rains in the spring." / "I like rain when it's warm." (maybe gnomic?) / "I buy a new car every two years."
- Episodic is about single events that occur in episodes across some span of time (in this case with undefined beginnings and ends).
- e.g. "The teacher is writing a book." / ... / "I'm liking this rainy weather." / "I'm [in the drawn-out process of] buying a car.
- Progressive/continuous is about an event that is in the process of occurring at the referenced time.
- e.g. "The teacher is writing an exercise for the students." / "It's raining outside right now." / ... / "I'm buying a car right now [I'll call you back]."
- Future is anything that happens in the future. In the situations below it mostly includes a gnomic, habitual, or perfective aspect too.
- e.g. "The teacher will write lessons"/"an exercise every day"/"a book". / "It's going to rain tomorrow." / "I'll like this movie when I see it." / "I'm going to buy a car soon."
|gnomic||жазат||жазады||яза||yazıyor, yazar||ýazýar, ýazar||суруйар||бичдэг, бичнэ|
|habitual||жазат||жазады||яза||yazıyor, yazar||ýazýar, ýazar||суруйар||бичдэг|
|episodic||жазып жүрөт||жазып жүр||яза||yazıyor||суруйар||бичиж байна, бичдэг байна (?)|
|progressive/continuous||жазып жатат||жазып жатыр||яза||yazıyor||ýazıp ýatyr||суруйар||бичиж байна|
|future||жазат||жазады||язачак, язар||yazacak, (yazar?)||ýazar, ýazjak||суруйоҕа||бичнэ|
Notes and references
- the latter only with "stative" verbs
This paper has a good literature review and discussion of the Turkish forms.