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Orthographic normalisation

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A module to do orthographic normalisation on input streams would be nice. Some are more complicated than others. Certain forms of orthographic normalisation (for example for Romanian ș and ş) can be done with the ACX format which allows the definition of sets of equivalent characters.


There are a couple of special characters in Serbo-Croatian which can be written with two characters or one character, a decision must be made which version to use in the dictionaries, and then forms not like this need to be converted:

  • dž ←→ dž
  • lj ←→ lj
  • nj ←→ nj

The indefinite article in Afrikaans is "'n". This can be written a number of different ways:

  • 'n U+0027 U+006E
  • ‘n U+2018 U+006E
  • ʼn U+0149
  • ’n U+2019 U+006E

This ideally needs to be merged into one form.

See also: Unicode issues

When a character has an accent, sometimes there is more than one way of representing it, using either pre-combined (sometimes referred to as pre-composed) or combining characters. These look different when encoded in UTF-8, but the same to the user.

UTF-8 0xC3 0xA0 vs. 0x61 0xCC 0x81
      á         vs.      á 
      U+00E1    vs. U+0061 U+0301

The best thing to do is probably standardise on one variant for analysis/generation, and then normalise all input coming into the analyser using a transliterator or something similar.