Farsi and English/Pending tests

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Sentence Structure[edit]

In English the sentence structure is subject-verb-object (SVO). However, in Farsi, the sentence structure is subject-object-verb (SOV). Below are literal translations, without word rearrangement, of the sentences from Farsi to English.

  • (fa) مادرم به مدرسه رفت. → Mother my to school the went.
  • (fa) معلمشان مشق را به پسرها داد. → Teacher their homework the to boys gave.
  • (fa) مرد زن قشنگش را دوست دارد و به او شکلات داد. → Man wife his beautiful the loved and to her chocolate gave.
  • (fa) کت سفید برای من بزرگ است. → Coat white big on me is.
  • (fa) دکتر دارو به چند نفر داد. → Doctor medicine to people several gave.

Below are the previous sentences rearranged to English grammar standards.

  • (fa) مادرم به مدرسه رفت. → My mother went to the school.
  • (fa) معلمشان مشق را به پسرها داد. → Their teacher gave the homework to the boys.
  • (fa) مرد زن قشنگش را دوست دارد و به او شکلات داد. → A man loved his wife and gave her chocolate.
  • (fa) کت سفید برای من بزرگ است. → The white coat is big on me.
  • (fa) دکتر دارو به چند نفر داد. → A doctor gave medicine to several people.


Indefinite and Definite[edit]

In Farsi, there is no usage of articles. For instance, translating a noun with a preceding article in English to Farsi will render this result:

  • (en) a/the table → ميز
  • (en) a/the son → پسر
  • (en) a/the cat → گربه
  • (en) a/the father → بابا
  • (en) a/the door → در

However, in Farsi, there is also a word, "را", to reference a particular noun in a conversation. It is somewhat similar to "the" in English, however, it is not an equivalent substitute and is only used to mark definite nouns that are direct objects.

  • (fa) من در را دیدم. → I saw (the particular) door.
  • (fa) من نان را دادم. → I gave (the particular) bread.
  • (fa) من سگ را برداشم. → I lifted (the particular) dog.
  • (fa) من کتاب را نوشتم. → I wrote (the particular) book.
  • (fa) من کیف را دوست داشتم. → I loved (the particular) bag.

If the noun is not referenced or specified in a conversation or text, then there is no need for "را".

  • (fa) بابا بستنی داد. → Father gave ice cream.
  • (fa) بابادک هوا کردم. → I flew (a) kite.
  • (fa) چند سگ گرفتیم. → We caught several dogs.
  • (fa) شام خوردند. → They ate dinner.
  • (fa) آرش ماشین میشوید. → Arash washed (a) car.

The only way "را" will be used in these sentences is if someone asks specifically about the direct objects in the sentence. Say for instance someone asks, "چه کس را؟" This phrase translates to "Who?" and is used to refer to human objects. On the other hand the phrase, "چه چیز را؟", means "Which object?" and is used to refer to nonhuman objects. Take our previous sentences with "را" inserted after the direct object.[1]

  • (fa) بابا بستنی را داد. → Father gave the ice cream.
  • (fa) بابادک را هوا کردم. → I flew the kite.
  • (fa) چند سگ را گرفتیم. → We caught the several dogs.
  • (fa) شام را خوردند. → They ate the dinner.
  • (fa) آرش ماشین را میشوید. → Arash washed the car.

"را" makes the nouns become specific between the two people conversing or in a text the reader is reading.


Personal Pronouns[edit]

  • (fa) من فوتبال بازی کردم. → I played soccer.
  • (fa) تو فوتبال بازی کردی. → You (singular) played soccer.
  • (fa) او فوتبال بازی کرد. → He/she/it played soccer.

(In Farsi, there are no distinctions between he, she, or it.)

  • (fa) ما فوتبال باری کردیم. → We played soccer
  • (fa) شما فوتبال بازی کردید. → You all (plural) played soccer.
  • (fa) آنها فوتبال بازی کردند. → They play soccer.

Possessive Pronouns[edit]

In Farsi, the possessive pronoun is a suffix attached to the noun, unlike English, which has the possessive pronoun precede the noun. This is the most common way to demonstrate ownership of a noun.

  • (fa) مریم گلم را دوست داشت. → Maryam liked my flower.
  • (fa) مریم گلت را دوست داشت. → Maryam liked your (singular) flower.
  • (fa) مریم گلش را دوست داشت. → Maryam liked his/her/its flower.
  • (fa) مریم گلمان را دوست داشت. → Maryam liked our flower.
  • (fa) مریم گلتان را دوست داشت. → Maryam liked your (plural) flower.
  • (fa) مریم گلشان را دوست داشت. → Maryam liked their flower.

Possessive pronouns also use personal pronouns to show possession of a noun. The character, " ِ ", is the equivalent to an apostrophe in English. However, this form is used only for nouns that act as subjects or indirect objects.[2]

  • (fa) جایزه من قشنگ است. → My award is beautiful.
  • (fa) جایزه تو قشنگ است. → Your award is beautiful.
  • (fa) جایزه او قشنگ است. → His/Her/Its award is beautiful.
  • (fa) جایزه ما قشنگ است. → Our award is beautiful.
  • (fa) جایزه شما قشنگ است. → Your (plural) award is beautiful.
  • (fa) جایزه آنها قشنگ است. → Their award is beautiful.


Adjectives in Farsi succeed the nouns they modify, unlike English which has the adjective precede the noun it is modifying. For beginners, the character " ِ ", is written after the noun and before the adjective for pronunciation purposes. However, in most texts the " ِ " is understood so it is not written.

  • (fa) مار سیاه → black snake (literally translated "snake black")
  • (fa) ماهی بزرگ → big fish (literally translated "fish big")
  • (fa) خواهر کوچک → little sister (literally translated "sister little")
  • (fa) پسر کوتاه → short boy (literally translated "boy short")
  • (fa) معلم زشت → ugly teacher (literally translated "teacher ugly")
  • (fa) مادر قشنگ → beautiful mother (literally translated "mother beautiful")
  • (fa) جعبه بلند → tall box (literally translated "box tall")
  • (fa) تاکسی زرد → yellow taxi (literally translated "taxi yellow")
  • (fa) تلویزیون رنگی → color television (literally translated "television color")
  • (fa) درخت سیب → apple tree (literally translated "tree apple")
  • (fa) زن جوان → young wife (literally translated "wife young")


In Farsi, there are verb conjugations. These conjugations are suffixes attached to the verb. These suffixes make the subjects understood. In English, the subject most always has to be stated (an exception for the imperative). Below are some examples of simple past tense in English.

  • I went
  • You (singular) went
  • He/She/It went
  • We went
  • You all (plural) went
  • They went

  • I screamed
  • You (singular) screamed
  • He/She/It screamed
  • We screamed
  • You all (plural) screamed
  • They screamed

  • I saw
  • You (singular) saw
  • He/She/It saw
  • We saw
  • You all (plural) saw
  • They saw

However, in Farsi, the suffixes added to the verbs make the subject and tense understood.

  • (fa) رفتم → I went
  • (fa) رفتی → You (singular) went
  • (fa) رفت → He/She/It went
  • (fa) رفتیم → We went
  • (fa) رفتید → You all (plural) went
  • (fa) رفتند → They went

  • (fa) جیخ زدم → I screamed
  • (fa) جیخ زدی → You (singular) screamed
  • (fa) جیخ زد → He/She/It screamed
  • (fa) جیخ زدیم → We screamed
  • (fa) جیخ زدید → You all (plural) screamed
  • (fa) جیخ زدند → They screamed

  • (fa) دیدم → I saw
  • (fa) دیدی → You (singular) saw
  • (fa) دید → He/She/It saw
  • (fa) دیدیم → We saw
  • (fa) دیدید → You all (plural) saw
  • (fa) دیدند → They saw

Below are the same verbs translated to present perfect tense from Farsi to English. In the simple present tense, the suffixes change because the tense changed.

  • (fa) رفته‌ام → I have gone
  • (fa) رفته‌ای → You (singular) have gone
  • (fa) رفته‌است → He/She/It has gone
  • (fa) رفته‌ایم → We have gone
  • (fa) رفته‌اید → You all (plural) have gone
  • (fa) رفته‌اند → They have gone

  • (fa) جیخ زده‌ام → I have screamed
  • (fa) ججیخ زده‌ای → You (singular) have screamed
  • (fa) جیخ زده‌است → He/She/It has screamed
  • (fa) جیخ زده‌ایم → We have screamed
  • (fa) جیخ زده‌اید → You all (plural) have screamed
  • (fa) جیخ زده‌اند → They have screamed

  • (fa) دیده‌ام → I have seen
  • (fa) دیده‌ای → You (singular)have seen
  • (fa) دیده‌است → He/She/It has seen
  • (fa) دیده‌ایم → We have seen
  • (fa) دیده‌اید → You all (plural) have seen
  • (fa) دیده‌اند → They have seen