English and Hindi/ Contrastive Grammar

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ENGLISH AND HINDI- Study in languages[edit]

This page covers difference between English and Hindi.

English belongs to the Indo-European language family. English is one of the most spoken languages in the world, with 360 to 400 million speakers for whom it is their mother tongue, 400 million speakers for whom it is their second language and 600 to 700 speakers for whom it is a foreign language. Whereas Hindi is one of the most studied languages and one of the richest languages in the world as enlisted by the UN. There are total (including language 1 and language 2 speakers) 380 million speakers in the whole world.

For more information on English language: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language For more information on Hindi language: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi

Here are a few differences between two of the richest languages in the world enlisted below

Sentence Structure[edit]

In English the sentence structure is subject-verb-object (SVO)


  • I like to play basket ball. (S- I V- play O-basketball)


  • Stacy is writing about the movie.
  • Ren is fixing the pole.

However, in Hindi, the sentence structure is subject-object-verb (SOV). Below is an example of translations done literally according to word to word :-

  • (hindi) माँ ने मुझे स्कूल भेजा → Mother me school sent [In Hindi: S-माँ (mother) O-स्कूल (school) V-भेजा (sent)]

Below is the previous sentence rearranged to English grammar standards.

  • (hindi) माँ ने मुझे स्कूल भेजा → My mother sent me to school (in English: S-Mother V-sent O-school)

Similarly:- (along with pronunciation)

  • (hindi) रानी पानी पीने गयी → Rani water drink went :: Rani went to drink water
  • (hindi) आदमी खाना खाने गया → man food to eat went :: Man went to eat food


Personal Pronouns[edit]

A personal pronoun is a pronoun that is associated primarily with a particular organism or a thing in the grammatical sense. In English, there are sets of Personal pronouns which can be used to differentiate gender. In Hindi, often the same words are used even in cases of different gender. Examples of such pronouns:-

  • (Eng) He → वह
  • (Eng) She → वह
  • (Eng) His → उनके/उसके
  • (Eng) Her → उनके/उसके

Some translations of sentences:-

  • (hindi) मुझे गाने सुनना पसंद है → I like listening to songs
  • (hindi) वह सड़कों पर कुत्ते को बाहर ले गया → He took the dog out in the streets.
  • (hindi) तुम मेरी बेटी हो → You are my daughter
  • (hindi) वह एक नर्तकी है → She is a dancer

Possessive Pronouns[edit]

In Hindi, the possessive pronouns mean the same thing as in English language- Pronouns which show possession.

Here are few examples of possessive pronouns in Hindi shown below:-

Literal translations (word to word) and actual translations:-

  • (hindi) रोजी अपना हार खरीदना चाहता है → Rosie her necklace buy want :: Rosie wants to buy her necklace
  • (hindi) आर्य उसकी बहन है → Arya her sister is. :: Arya is her sister
  • (hindi) वह बारिश में गा रहा है → He rain in singing :: He is singing in the rain

But the main differences are:-

  • Same pronouns often used for different genders (even non-living)
  • The gender of the object (Yes in Hindi objects have genders)

Here are few examples to explain previous section:-

Between the genders of the subject:-

  • (Eng) His / Her / Its → इसका (near)/ उसका (far)

(hindi) इसका बहन आर्य है → Arya is his/her/its sister.

(hindi) उसका नोट दीवार पर लटका दिया गया है → his/its/her note is hung on the wall.

  • (Eng) Their (Near) or His / Her (Formal) → इनका

(hindi) इनका जूता काले रंग के है → His/ Her/ their shoes are black.

  • (Eng) Their (Far) or His / Her (Formal) → उनका

(hindi) उनका शहर में ठण्ड है → His/ Her/ their city is cold.

Words may vary. Reason will be explained in the next section Also, there are two forms for each pronoun as you can see. That is because the pronoun changes as per the position of the object. Some words, when translated have been depicted as not masculine and feminine because the same word can be used to depict both genders.

Between the genders of the object:- Every Hindi noun is either Masculine or Feminine. Our Possessive Pronouns must agree with the gender of the word:-

  • (Eng) My → मेरा (for masculine )/ मेरी (for feminine )

(hindi) मेरा घर → My house (House in Hindi is a masculine word)

(hindi) मेरी किताब → My Book. (Book in Hindi is a feminine word)

  • (Eng) Their → उनके (masculine ) /उनकी (feminine) (this is in case of plural)

(hindi) उनके केले → Their bananas. (Banana is a masculine word)

(hindi) उनकी जूते → Their shoes. (Shoe is a feminine word)

  • (Eng) Her/ His (depends on object) → उसकी (feminine) / उसके (masculine)

(hindi) उसकी साडी → Her Sari. (Sari is a feminine word i.e. it is a type of cultural Indian clothing)

(hindi) उसके आलू → his potatoes. (potatoes are masculine words here.)


Verb are words to indicate any action taking place in a particular time frame. It should be clear whether that action is current, occurred in the past or expected to occur in future. Like most of the problems listed above, the translation is difficult due to the different sentence structure and genders (the use of genders in pronouns are given above). Here are few examples:-

  • (hindi) पढ़ना → To Read (or To Study)
  • (hindi) बोलना → To Speak
  • (hindi) सोना → To Sleep
  • (hindi) खाना → To Eat
  • (hindi) सीखना → To Learn
  • (hindi) जाना → To Go

Here are few more examples of verbs as classified by tenses.

Present tense[edit]

Literal translation and Actual translations :-

  • (hindi) में चलके स्कूल जाता हूँ → I walking to school go. :: I walk to school
  • (hindi) साहिब तेज से दौङता है। → Sahib fast runs. :: Sahib runs fast
  • (hindi) बच्चे फुटबॉल खेलते हैं। → Children football play :: Children play football

Past tense[edit]

Literal Translation and Actual translations :-

  • (hindi) मैं स्कूल के लिए चला गया → I school for went. :: I went to school
  • (hindi) साहिब तेजी से भागा। → Sahib fast ran :: Sahib ran fast
  • (hindi) बच्चों ने फुटबॉल खेला → Children football played :: Children played football

Future tense[edit]

Literal translation and Actual translations :-

  • (hindi) मैं स्कूल जाऊँगा → I school will go :: I will go to school
  • (hindi) साहिब तेजी से दौङेगा। → Sahib fast will run :: Sahib will run fast
  • (hindi) बच्चे फुटबॉल खेलेंगे। → Children football will play :: Children will play football

P.S. this section does not depict difference between tenses in both the languages. The tenses have just been depicted to show the different forms of verbs in each tense and language

Types of Verbs[edit]

1. Transitive verb: Transitive verb are those verb which normally have a direct object:


Literal translation and Actual translations :-

  • (hindi) राम समाचार पत्र पढ़ रहा है। → Ram a newspaper is reading :: Ram is reading a newspaper
  • (hindi) सीता बाजार जा रही है। → Sita the market is going to :: Sita is going to the market
  • (hindi) जॉनसन क्रिकेट खेल रहा है। → Johnson cricket is playing :: Johnson is playing cricket

2) Intransitive verb: Intransitive verbs which does not have any specific object on which the action being done:


Literal translations and Actual translations :-

  • (hindi) बच्चों रो रहे हैं। → Children crying are :: Children are crying
  • (hindi) रंजन खेल रहा है। → Ranjan playing is. :: Ranjan is playing.
  • (hindi) मोहन सो रहा है। → Mohan sleeping is. :: Mohan is sleeping

As mentioned earlier the word order is not the same. There may be a lot of places where in translations, there is a difference in the no. Of words in either Hindi or English. That is again one of the translation problems as sometimes two words in Hindi may be translated to one word in English


The translation from Hindi to English poses as a major barrier for learners as their grammatical differencees vary by structure a lot.

Our world have over a thousand languages, and over a million dialects. We should learn more about our varied languages, cultures and lives. These two languages and considered to be one of the most richest languages in the world and there are more. Let us explore the sweetness of our varied heritage even more by stepping forward to embrace our lingual differences and start adopting them.