User:Firespeaker/Turkic aorist

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  • Gnomic is about general truths, devoid of time references, e.g. "Teachers write lessons."
  • Habitual is about events that occur regularly, e.g. "The teacher writes an exercise every day."
  • Episodic is about single events that occur in episodes across some span of time (in this case with undefined beginnings and ends), e.g. "The teacher is writing a book."
  • Progressive/continuous is about an event that is in the process of occurring at the referenced time, e.g. "The teacher is writing an exercise for the students."
  • Future is anything that happens in the future. In the situations below it mostly includes a gnomic, habitual, or perfective aspect too, e.g. "The teacher will write lessons"/"an exercise every day"/"a book".


aspect Kyrgz Kazakh Tatar Turkish Turkmen (Khalkha)
gnomic жазат жазады яза yazıyor, yazar ýazýar, ýazar бичнэ, бичдэг
habitual жазат жазады яза yazıyor, yazar ýazýar, ýazar бичдэг
episodic жазып жүрөт жазып жүр яза yazıyor бичиж байна
progressive/continuous жазып жатат жазып жатыр яза yazıyor ýazıp ýatyr бичиж байна
future жазат жазады язачак, язар yazacak, (yazar?) ýazar, ýazjak бичнэ

This paper has a good literature review and discussion of the Turkish forms.