Turkic languages

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The Turkic languages include Turkish, Azeri, Uzbek, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Chuvash, Turkmen, Bashkir, and several dozen other languages. The languages are related with varying levels of mutual intelligibility. Our goal is to enhance MT coverage of them with apertium.

The ultimate master plan involves generating independent finite-state transducers for each language, and then making individual dictionaries and transfer rules for every pair. The current status of these goals is listed below.


Once a transducer has ~80% coverage on a range of corpora we can say it is "working". Over 90% and it can be considered to be "production".


name Language ISO 639 formalism state stems coverage location primary authors
-2 -3 corpus words %cov
trmorph Turkish tr tur SFST working SETimes 4.1M ~88% Çağri
kymorph Kyrgyz ky kir HFST (lexc+twol) working 8,541 azattyk 2010 3.4M ~87% trunk/apertium-tr-ky Jonathan, Mirlan, Fran
turmorph Turkish tr tur HFST (lexc+twol) development 18,227 SETimes 4.1M ~71% Gianluca
kazmorph Kazakh kk kaz HFST (lexc+twol) development 1,750 Әуезов 92K ~73.1% incubator/apertium-ky-kk Nathan, Jonathan, Fran
wp 2011-11 0.84M ~57%
Chuvash cv cuv? HFST (lexc+twol) development 88 88.8k ~30% incubator/apertium-cv-ru Hèctor
Tatar tt tat -
azmorph Azerbaijani az aze SFST working? - trunk/apertium-tr-az Gianluca

Turkic-Turkic pairs

Text in italic denotes language pairs under development.

tr az tk uz ky kk tt cv ba ug
tr tr-az tr-ky tr-cv
az az-tr
ky ky-tr ky-kk
kk kk-tt
tt tt-kk
cv cv-tr

Pairs with non-Turkic languages

tr az tk uz ky kk tt cv ba ug
en tr-en ky-en
ru cv-ru
mn mn-kk


Rough guide to tagsets in various Turkic language transducers, with an eye to keeping stuff that is basically the same tagged the same. In the following table, A stands for Apertium and T stands for TRmorph.

Phenomenon Morphology Description Tag(s) Language(s) Notes
Ablative case -DAn Case indicating movement away <abl> Pan-turkic
Tense, aspect, mood
Imperative Mood for giving orders <imp>A, <t_imp>T Pan-turkic