Uralic languages

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The Uralic languages (urj) constitute a language family of some three dozen related languages descended from a Proto-Uralic language and spoken by more than 25 million people throughout Europe and Northern Asia. Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian are the Uralic languages with the most native speakers.

The master plan involves generating independent finite-state transducers for each language, and then making individual dictionaries and transfer rules for every pair. The current status of these goals is listed below.

[edit] Status

The ultimate goal is to have multi-purposable transducers for a variety of Uralic languages. These can then be paired for X→Y translation with the addition of a CG for language X and transfer rules / dictionary for the pair X→Y. Below is listed development progress for each language's transducers and dictionary pairs.

[edit] Transducers

Once a transducer has ~80% coverage on a range of medium-large corpora we can say it is "working". Over 90% and it can be considered to be "production".

name language native name ISO 639 formalism state stems paradigms coverage location primary authors
-2 -3
apertium-fin Finnish Suomen kieli fi fin lttoolbox production 408,216 1,526 apertium-fin (languages) Trond, mie
apertium-myv Erzya eŕźań keĺ myv HFST (lexc+twol) development 74,977 apertium-myv-fin (incubator) Fran, jackrueter
apertium-liv Livonian līvõ kēļ liv HFST (lexc+twol) development 11,646 apertium-liv-fin (incubator) Fran, rblumber, jackrueter
apertium-mrj Hill Mari Мары йӹлмӹ mrj HFST (lexc+twol) development 53,051 apertium-mrj-fin (incubator) Fran, kuprina, jackrueter
apertium-olo Livvi-Karelian Livvi olo HFST (lexc+twol) development 10,304 apertium-olo-fin (incubator) Fran, rantakau, jackrueter
apertium-fkv Kven Kainun kieli fkv HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 0 apertium-fkv-fin (incubator) Fran, nikerabbit
apertium-sme Northern Sami davvisámegiella sm sme HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 726 apertium-eus-sme (incubator) Linda
apertium-udm Udmurt удмурт кыл udm HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 196 apertium-udm-rus (nursery) Fran, Trond, Andrey, Лукерья, Алексей
apertium-hun Hungarian magyar hu hun lttoolbox prototype 138 50 apertium-hun (incubator) mie
apertium-kpv Komi-Zyrian Коми кыв kpv HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 135 apertium-kpv-mhr (incubator) Fran, Trond, Fedina, Andrei Chemyshev
apertium-mhr Meadow Mari Олык Марий mhr HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 117 apertium-kpv-mhr (incubator) Fran, Fedina, Andrei Chemyshev
apertium-est Estonian eesti keel et est HFST (lexc+twol) prototype apertium-fin-est (incubator) Fran
apertium-smj Lule Sami julevsámegiella smj lttoolbox prototype apertium-sme-smj (incubator) Fran, Linda
apertium-sma Southern Sami Åarjelsaemien gïele sma lttoolbox  ? apertium-sme-sma (nursery) Fran, Trond, rtxanson, leneant, makappfj
apertium-smn Inari Sami smn lttoolbox  ? apertium-sme-smn (incubator)

[edit] Uralic languages by subgroup

All Uralic languages are thought to have descended, through independent processes of language change, from Proto-Uralic. The traditional classification is as follows:

[edit] Existing language pairs

Text in italic denotes language pairs under development / in the incubator. Regular text denotes a functioning language pair in staging, while text in bold denotes a stable well-working language pair in trunk.

hun fin fkv liv olo mrj myv udm kpv sme sma mhr est smj smn
hun - fin-hun
153
fin fin-hun
153
- fkv-fin
217
liv-fin
1
olo-fin
197
mrj-fin
273
myv-fin
401
fin-udm
93
kpv-fin
1
sme-fin
7,160
fin-est
16,584
fkv fkv-fin
217
-
liv liv-fin
1
-
olo olo-fin
197
-
mrj mrj-fin
273
-
myv myv-fin
401
-
udm fin-udm
93
-
kpv kpv-fin
1
- kpv-mhr
127
sme sme-fin
7,160
- sme-sma
15,185
sme-smj
39,525
sme-smn
139
sma sme-sma
15,185
-
mhr kpv-mhr
127
-
est fin-est
16,584
-
smj sme-smj
39,525
-
smn sme-smn
139
-
ces fin-ces
235
deu sme-deu
6
eng hun-eng
1,253
fin-eng
159,257
epo eo-hu
31,689
eo-fi
1,043
eus eu-hu
316
eus-fin
?
eus-sme
586
gle fin-gle
181
hbs fin-hbs
250
isl fin-isl
1,000
ita fin-ita
?
nob sme-nob
74,763
nor est-nor
?
rus udm-rus
148
sjd sme-sjd
?
spa fin-spa
283
sme-spa
1
swe fin-swe
1,893

[edit] Samples

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Language Text
Finnish Kaikki ihmiset syntyvät vapaina ja tasavertaisina arvoltaan ja oikeuksiltaan. Heille on annettu järki ja omatunto, ja heidän on toimittava toisiaan kohtaan veljeyden hengessä.
Saami, Northern Buot olbmot leat riegádan friddjan ja olmmošárvvu ja olmmošvuoigatvuoðaid dáfus dássásažžab, Sudhuude kea addib huervnu ha ianedivdym ha vyigjat gakget neabbydut gyunnuudeaset gyivdy vuekhakaš vuoiŋŋain.
Hungarian Minden. emberi lény szabadon születik és egyenlő méltósága és joga van. Az emberek, ésszel és lelkiismerettel bírván, egymással szemben testvéri szellemben kell hogy viseltessenek.
Estonian Kõik inimesed sünnivad vabadena ja võrdsetena oma väärikuselt ja õigustelt. Neile on antud mõistus ja südametunnistus ja nende suhtumist üksteisesse peab kandma vendluse vaim.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Uralic languages", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

[edit] Vulnerability

This table summarizes the vulnerability of various Uralic languages. Data is derived from the ‘Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, © UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/culture/languages-atlas’ and Ethnologue.

Language ISO639-3 Location Speakers Status
Ethnologue UNESCO
Kamas xas Russian Federation 0 10 (Extinct) -
Saami, Akkala sia Russian Federation 0 9 (Dormant) 5 (Extinct)
Liv liv Latvia 15 8b (Nearly extinct) 4 (Critically endangered)
Saami, Ume sju Sweden 20 8b (Nearly extinct) 4 (Critically endangered)
Saami, Pite sje Norway, Sweden 20 8b (Nearly extinct) 4 (Critically endangered)
Enets, Forest enf Russian Federation 40 8b (Nearly extinct) 4 (Critically endangered)
Enets, Tundra enh Russian Federation 40 8b (Nearly extinct) 4 (Critically endangered)
Vod vot Russian Federation 68 8b (Nearly extinct) 4 (Critically endangered)
Ingrian izh Russian Federation 120 8b (Nearly extinct) 3 (Severely endangered)
Nganasan nio Russian Federation 130 8b (Nearly extinct) 3 (Severely endangered)
Saami, Kildin sjd Russian Federation 350 8b (Nearly extinct) 3 (Severely endangered)
Saami, Ter sjt Russian Federation 350 8b (Nearly extinct) 4 (Critically endangered)
Ludian lud Russian Federation 25,600 8a (Moribund) 3 (Severely endangered)
Saami, Skolt sms Finland, Norway, Russian Federation 650 7 (Shifting) 3 (Severely endangered)
Mansi mns Russian Federation 940 6b (Threatened) 4 (Critically endangered)
Veps vep Russian Federation 3,610 6b (Threatened) 3 (Severely endangered)
Khanty kca Russian Federation 9,580 6b (Threatened) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Nenets yrk Russian Federation 21,900 6b (Threatened) 3 (Severely endangered)
Livvi-Karelian olo Finland, Russian Federation 25,600 6b (Threatened) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Võro vro Estonia 60,000 6b (Threatened) -
Selkup sel Russian Federation 1,020 5 (Developing) 4 (Critically endangered)
Komi-Permyak koi Russian Federation 63,100 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Komi-Zyrian kpv Russian Federation 156,000 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Udmurt udm Russian Federation 339,800 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Mari, Hill mrj Russian Federation 388,000 5 (Developing) 3 (Severely endangered)
Erzya myv Russian Federation 431,700 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Moksha mdf Russian Federation 432,000 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Finnish, Kven fkv Norway 5,000 4 (Educational) -
Karelian krl Finland, Russian Federation 25,600 4 (Educational) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Mari, Meadow mhr Russian Federation 388,000 4 (Educational) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Saami, Inari smn Finland 300 2 (Provincial) 3 (Severely endangered)
Saami, South sma Norway, Sweden 600 2 (Provincial) 3 (Severely endangered)
Saami, Lule smj Norway, Sweden 2,000 2 (Provincial) 3 (Severely endangered)
Saami, North sme Finland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden 20,700 2 (Provincial) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Finnish, Tornedalen fit Sweden 60,000 2 (Provincial) -
Estonian, Standard ekk Estonia 1,018,400 1 (National) -
Finnish fin Finland 4,994,490 1 (National) -
Hungarian hun Hungary & Romania 12,319,330 1 (National) 3 (Severely endangered)

[edit] See also

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