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Morphology of Turkish

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[edit] Morphophonology

[edit] The behaviour of {y}

There is need for a {y} "archiphoneme" in the morphophonology. Lowercase {y} is appropriate, since by our guidelines, uppercase characters are used for letters which primarily change forms (and may occasionally delete), whereas lowercase characters are used for letters which primarily delete/appear (and may change form when they appear).

Examples of {y}
example After a vowel After a consonant
{y}l{A} anneyle, babayla gözle, saçla
{y}{A} anneye, babaya göze, saça
{y}{A}c{A}{K} izleyecek, okuyacak gelecek, olacak
{y}{A}b{I}l- izleyebil-, okuyabıl- gelebil-, olabıl-

[edit] {I} versus {i}

The archiphoneme {i} deletes after vowels, whereas {I} replaces the previous vowel (i.e., surfaces and triggers the deletion of the previous vowel). They both surface after consonants. They obey the same vowel harmony rules when they surface, having four possible forms: i (after i & e), ü (after ü & ö), ı (after a & ı), and u (after u & o).

Examples of {i} and {I}
archiphoneme example After a vowel After a consonant
{i} {i}p büyüp, izlep, arap verip, olup, bakıp
{I} {I}yor büyüyor, izliyor, arıyor veriyor, oluyor, bakıyor

[edit] Devoicing

category alternating voiceless voiced
voiced before %>: :Vow never always
voiceless syllable-finally always never
examples kitap/kitabı
yurt/yurdu
güç/gücü
köpek/köpeği

et/ediyor
çöp/çöpü
at/atı
iç/içi
halk/halkı
yap/yapiyor
bit/bitiyor
iç/içiyor
bak/bakiyor
leb/lebi
ad/adı
hac/hacı
(dağ/dağı)
nouns verbs nouns verbs nouns verbs
p/b kitap
cevap
çöp yap
öp
leb
t/d yurt et
git
güt
devlet
at
tut
bit
eğit
at
ad
ç/c güç
ağaç
amaç
haç

suç

seç
kaç

geç
biç

ölç
saç
hac
kırbac
k/ğ kulak
köpek
halk
mülk
kök
gök
bak
yak
yık
(dağ) (yağ)
(yığ)
(doğ)

[edit] Aorist rules

  • Verb stems ending with vowels: -r
  • Polysyllabic verb stems ending with consonants: -Ir
  • Most monosyllabic verb stems ending with consonants: -Ar
  • The following 13 monosyllabic verb stems ending with consonants: -Ir
    • al-, bil-, bul-, dur-, gel-, gör-, kal-, ol-, öl-, san-, var-, ver-, vur-

Best solution:

  • underlyingly -{i}r
  • separate verb class for -Ar verbs, whereby {A} is added to verb stem before -{i}r

Note:

  • applies to -{i}rken too

[edit] Words that break vowel harmony

  • deal with via {e}
  • examples: saat, dikkat, idrak, harp (harb-), harf, kalp (kalb-), terminal, meşgul, festival

[edit] Epenthetic high vowel

  • deal with via {y} (or something else, since {y} is already used, but Kazakh and Kyrgyz and Tatar use {y})
  • examples: nehir/nehr-, burun/burn-, karın/karn-, ...

[edit] Geminate consonants

  • examples: af/aff-, hak/hakk-, ...

[edit] Morphology

Non-finite verb forms
verbal noun w̄ cases verbal noun w̄ px* verbal noun w̄ postpositions verbal adjective verbal adverb participle
-m{I}ş yes yes ile, için, .. yes yes
-m{I}ş ol-
-m{A}{K} yes
-DAn, -DA, ..,
otherwise turns to -m{A}
turns to -m{A} için, .. yes yes
-m{A}{K} iste-
-m{A} yes yes  ? no
(cf. yazma sınav)
-{y}{A}c{A}{K} yes yes? yes? yes
(usually?) w̄ <px*>!
yes?
-{y}{A}c{A}{K} ol-?
-{D}{I}{K}¹,² yes yes  ? yes
<px*>!
-{y}{A}r{A}{K} yes
-{i}p yes
-({A})-{i}rken yes
-{C}{I} yes
-{y}{I}nc{A} kadar, ile, —? yes —?
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