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Morphology of Kyrgyz language

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[edit] Noun morphology

Missing rules
  1. "атым" works, "балам" doesn't
    1. Rule: delete ы after %> and before м
    2. ы:0 <=> %> _ м ; </s>
  2. "балабыз" works, "атыбыз" doesn't
    1. Rule: delete ы after %> and before быз
    2. ы:0 <=> %> _ быз ; </s>
  3. "бала+ңыз" works, "атыңыз" doesn't
    1. Rule: delete ы after %> and before ңыз
    2. ы:0 <=> %> _ ңыз ; </s>
  4. уул<n><px1sg><dat> --> уулумга doesn't works
    1. Rule: delete г after м and ң
    2. This rule is same for px1sg,px2sg,px3sg
  5. үй<n><px1sg><dat> --> үйүмга doesn't works
    1. Rule1: delete г after м and ң
    2. Rule2: change end vowel according to previous vowel
  6. китеп<n><px1sg><acc> --> китебимды doesn't works
    1. Rule: last vowel ы should harmonized
  7. Vowel harmony in ablative case
    1. Rule : {D}{A}н, {А} must be harmonized according to previous vowel.
    2. Ex , The output now is : короо<n><px1sg><abl>/короомдан but must be короомдон
  8. Desonorisation of {D} in ablative
    1. Rule : {D} must be desonorized into н if the previous letter is {I}
    2. Ex,The output now is : мал<n><px3sg><abl>/малыдан but must be малынан
  9. Desonorisation of {D} in plural
    1. Rule : {D} must be desonorized into л, the rule must be figured out and checked. !Not completely Sure
    2. Ex, The output now is :ай<n><pl><nom>/айдар but must be айлар
  10. Addition of н before locative suffix
    1. Ex, The output now is : мал<n><px3sg><loc>/малыда but must be малы+н+да
  11. Vowel harmony in locative suffixes
    1. Ex, The output now is : көчө<n><px2sg><loc>/көчөңда but must be көчөңдө
  12. Vowel harmony in dative suffixes
    1. Ex, The output now is : эже<n><px2sg><dat>/эжеңа but must be эжеңе
  13. Addition of н after {I} in in locative suffixes
    1. Ex,The output now is :шаар<n><px><loc>/шаардыкыда but must be шаардыкында
  14. Deletion of ы after (px3sg,px3pl)3rd person singular,plural and after (px)general possessive in accusative suffixes
    1. Ex,The output now is эл<n><px3pl><acc>/элдерины but must be элдерин

мал<n><px><acc>/малдыкыны but must be малдыкын


  • These should all really be rules to epenthesise/insert /I/ (ы, и, у, ү) after a consonant before these endings.

[edit] Noun Person,Possessives

() = after vowel, [] = after consonant, {} = archivowel/consonant

({I})м,                1sg
({I})ң,                2sg informal
({I})ң{I}з,            2sg formal 
[с]{I},                3sg 
({I})б{I}з,            1pl
({I})ң{A}р,            2pl informal
({I})ң{I}зд{A}р,       2pl formal
[с]{I}                 3pl

[edit] 1st Person Possessives

Singular/Plural Suffix Example Gloss
Singular -ым becomes-м if ends with vowel ат+ым,бала+м my horse, my son
Plural -ыбыз become -быз if ends with vowel ат+ыбыз,бала+быз our horse, our son

[edit] 2nd Person Possessive

Singular/Plural Suffix Example Gloss
Singular -ың becomes -ң if ends with vowel,-ыңыз becomes -ңыз if ends with vowel ат+ың,бала+ң,ат+ыңыз,бала+ңыз your horse, your son, your horse(kind way),your son(kind way)
Plural -ыңар becomes -ңар if ends with vowel,-ыңыздар becomes -ңыздар if end with vowel ат+ыңар,бала+ңар,ат+ыңыздар,бала+ңыздар your horse,your son, your horse(kind way),your son(kind way)

[edit] 3rd Person Possessive

Singular/Plural Suffix Example Gloss
-- -ы becomes -сы when following vowel ат+ы,бала+сы his horse, his son

[edit] General Possessive

Singular/Plural Suffix Example Gloss
-- -ныкы эл+дики,мал+дыкы,балаң+дыкы,тоо+нуку,төө+нүкү people's, livestock's, your son's, the mountain's, the camel's (as their own NPs)

[edit] Noun cases

Case Name Suffixes
absolute ---
genitive -нын, -нин, -дын, -дин, -тын, -тин, -нун, -нүн, -дун, -дүн, -тун, -түн
dative -га, -ка, -ге, -ке, -го, -ко, -гө, -кө
definite-accusative -ны, -ни, -ды, -ди, -ты, -ти, -ну, -нү, -ду, -дү, -ту, -тү
locative -да, -де, -та, -те, -до, -дө, -то, -тө
ablative -дан, -ден, -тан, -тен, -дон, -дөн, -тон, -төн

[edit] Genitive, Rules for suffixes

Rules -нын,-ын transfromation Examples Gloss
Ends with vowels -нын,-нун,-нин,нүн бала+нын, тоо+нун, эне+нин, төө+нүн child's, mountain's, mother's, camel's
Ends with Voiced Consonants -дын,-дун,-дин,-дүн жаз+дын, коом+дун,билим+дин,көз+дүн spring's, community's, knowledge's, eye's
Ends with Unvoiced Consonants -тын,-тун,-тин,-түн кат+тын,топ+тун, китеп+тин,өтүк+түн mail's, ball's, book's, shoe's
Ends with Third persons Possesive -ы,-сы and -ныкы -нын,-нун,-нин,-нүн мал+ы+нын, саат+ы+нын, бала+сы+нын, ини+си+нин, үй+ү+нүн, короо+су+нун, мектеп+тики+нин his animal's, his watch's, his child's, his brother's, his house's, his garden's, the school's's (e.g., the school's[ book]'s)

[edit] Dative, rules for suffixes

Rules surface form of -/GA/ Examples Gloss
Ends with vowels and Voiced Consonants -га,-го,-ге,-гө талаа+га, тоо+го,аскер+ге,көчө+гө,
кыз+га,борбор+го,көл+гө
to the field,to the mountain, to serve, to the girl,to the center, to the lake
Ends with Unvoiced Consonants -ка,-ко,-ке,-кө таш+ка,от+ко,терек+ке,жүрөк+кө to the stone,to the fire,to the tree,to the heart
after 1st and 2nd person singular possessive suffixes -/(I)m/, -/(I)ŋ/ -а,-е,-о,-ө саат+ым+а,саат+ың+а,короо+м+о,короо+ң+о,мекте<б>+иң+е,
үйүм+ө
to my watch, to your watch,to my garden,to your garded,to your school,to my house
after possessive suffix -/nIKI/ or -/(s)I/ -на,-не,-нө (-но is impossible because of intervening /I/s) саат+тыкы+на,короо+нуку+на,короо+су+на,мекте<б>+и+не,үй+дүкү+нө,
эже+ники+не,бала+сы+на,мал+ын+а,үй+ү+нө,эже+си+не,ките<б>+ин+е
to the watch's, to the garden's, to his/her garden, to his/her/its school, to the house's,
to the sister's, to his/her child, to his/her livestock, to his/her/their house, to his/her sister,to his/her book

[edit] Locative case

Rules surface form of -/DA/ Examples Gloss
Ends with a vowel or a voiced consonant -да,-до,-де,-дө талаа+да, тоо+до, аскер+де, көчө+дө,
кыз+да, борбор+до, көл+дө
in the field, on the mountain, in the army, ~at the girl, in the center, at the lake
Ends with an unvoiced consonant -та,-то,-те,-тө таш+та, от+то, терек+те, жүрөк+тө on the stone, in the fire, in the tree, in the heart
after possessive suffix -/nIKI/ or -/(s)I/ -нда,-нде,-ндө (-ндо is impossible because of intervening /I/s) саат+тыкы+нда,короо+нуку+нда,короо+су+нда,мекте<б>+и+нде,үй+дүкү+ндө,
эже+ники+нде,бала+сы+нда,мал+ы+нда,үй+ү+ндө

[edit] Definite-accusative, Rules for suffixes

Rules surface forms of -/NI/ Examples Gloss
Ends with vowels -ны,-ну,-ни,нү парта+ны,кино+ну,терезе+ни,көчө+нү desk, cinema,window,street
Ends with Voiced Consonants -ды,-ду,-ди,-дү кыз+ды,кулун+ду,жер+ди,жүзүм+дү girl,colt,place,grape
Ends with Unvoiced Consonants -ты,-ту,-ти,-тү бакыт+ты,куш+ту,китеп+ти,күрөк+тү happiness, bird, book, shovel
Ends with First and Second persons Possessive suffixes [this is the same as the voiced consonant rules and can be removed —JNW] -(д)ы,-(д)у,-(д)и,-(д)ү бала+м+ды,бала+ң+ды,уул+ум+ду,ките<б>+им+ди,үй+үм+дү my child,your child,my son,my book,my house
After third person -(s)I suffix or -NIKI possessive suffix бала+сы+н, уул+у+н, ките<б>+и+н, үй+ү+н; бала+ныкы+н, уул+дуку+н, китеп+тики+н, үй+дүкү+н his/her/its/their child, son, book, house

[edit] Ablative, Rules for suffixes

Rules surface forms of -/DAn/ Examples Gloss
Ends with vowels and Voiced Consonants -дан,-дон, -ден,-дөн алма+дан,тоо+дон,киши+ден,үй+дөн,кагаз+дан,герб+ден from apple,from mountain,from person,from house,from paper,
Ends with Unvoiced Consonants -тан,-тон,-тен,-төн таш+тан,от+тон,терек+тен,өрт+төн,топ+тон from stone, from fire, from tree, from fire, from ball
Ends with First and Second persons singular Possessive suffixes -(д)ан, -(д)он, -(д)ен, -(д)өн бала+м+дан/бала+м+ан, короо+м+дон/короо+м+он, китеб+им+ден/китеб+им+ен, көчө+ң+өн/көчө+ң+дөн from my son, from my garden, from my book, from your street
Ends with Third persons Possesive -(s)I or -ныкы -нан, -нен, -нөн (-нон is impossible after /I/) мал+ы+нан, үй+ү+нөн, күзгү+сү+нөн, Керим+дики+нен, шаар+дыкы+нан, ата+сы+ныкы+нан from his animal, from his house, from his mirror's, from Kerim's, from the city's, from his father's

[edit] All cases table

intrusive /n/
noun stem px1s px2s px3s -NIKI other (e.g. px1pl)
nom м ң {S}{I} {N}{I}к{I} б{I}з
acc {N}{I} м+{N}{I} ң+{N}{I} {S}{I}+н {N}{I}к{I}+н б{I}з+{N}{I}
gen {N}{I}н м+{N}{I}н ң+{N}{I}н {S}{I}+{N}{I}н {N}{I}к{I}+{N}{I}н б{I}з+{N}{I}н
loc {D}{A} м+{D}{A} ң+{D}{A} {S}{I}+н{D}{A} {N}{I}к{I}н{D}{A} б{I}з+{D}{A}
abl {D}{A}н м+{D}{A}н, м+{A}н ң+{D}{A}н, ң+{A}н {S}{I}+{N}{A}н {N}{I}к{I}+{N}{A}н б{I}з+{D}{A}н
dat {G}{A} м+{A} ң+{A} {S}{I}+н{A} {N}{I}к{I}+н{A} б{I}з+{G}{A}
similative {D}{A}й м+{D}{A}й ң+{D}{A}й {S}{I}+н{D}{A}й {N}{I}к{I}+н{D}{A}й б{I}з+{D}{A}й
omissive с{I}з м+с{I}з ң+с{I}з ({S}{I}+с{I}з) (({N}{I}к{I}+c{I}з)) б{I}з+с{I}з
fleeting /n/
noun stem px1s px2s px3s -NIKI other (e.g. px1pl)
nom м ң {S}{I} {N}{I}к{I} б{I}з
acc {N}{I} м+{N}{I} ң+{N}{I} {S}{I}н+0 {N}{I}к{I}н+0 б{I}з+{N}{I}
gen {N}{I}н м+{N}{I}н ң+{N}{I}н {S}{I}н+{I}н {N}{I}к{I}н+{I}н б{I}з+{N}{I}н
loc {D}{A} м+{D}{A} ң+{D}{A} {S}{I}н+{D}{A} {N}{I}к{I}н+{D}{A} б{I}з+{D}{A}
abl {D}{A}n м+{D}{A}н, м+{A}н ң+{D}{A}н, ң+{A}н {S}{I}н+{A}н {N}{I}к{I}н+{A}н б{I}з+{D}{A}н
dat {G}{A} м+{A} ң+{A} {S}{I}н+{A} {N}{I}к{I}н+{A} б{I}з+{G}{A}
similative {D}{A}й м+{D}{A}й ң+{D}{A}й {S}{I}н+{D}{A}й {N}{I}к{I}н+{D}{A}й б{I}з+{D}{A}й
omissive с{I}з м+с{I}з ң+с{I}з ({S}{I}+с{I}з) (({N}{I}к{I}+c{I}з)) б{I}з+с{I}з

[edit] Cases by syntactic function

Questions when we decide if something is a case or what kind of case it is.
  • Can a verb demand an argument in the given case ?
  • Does the case have to have a complement (even if assumed) ?
  • What morphology can come after the "case" ?
  • Should the thing be a feature or a new node in a graph structure ?
  • Does the morpheme have a fixed position in the morphotactics, or does it float ?
  • Can you use a specific question word to ask for the argument in that case? e.g. что < nom/acc, чего < gen, чем < ins ?
  • Is there a particular set of stems that can or can't take this morphology ?

[edit] Functional

name tag primary use form syntactic function following morphology follows
nominative <nom> subject of verb copula agreement (COP-INFL) <subst>
accusative <acc> object of verb —, -/NI/ <subst>
dative <dat> recipient, destination -/GA/ — (recipient), advl (destination) <subst>

[edit] Adverbial

name tag primary use form syntactic function following morphology follows
locative <loc> location -/DA/ advl copula agreement (COP-INFL) <subst>
ablative <abl> source -/DAн/ advl copula agreement (COP-INFL) <subst>
dative <dat> destination -/GA/ advl <subst>

[edit] Attributive

name tag primary use form syntactic function following morphology follows
genitive <gen> possessor —, -/NIн/ <subst>
similative <sim> like -/DAй/ →<attr> (,→<advl>,→<subst>,→pred.) pl., possession, etc. (ATTR-INFL) <subst>
abessive/privitive <abe> without -/сIз/ →<attr> (,→<advl>,→<subst>,→pred.) pl., possession, etc. (ATTR-INFL) <subst>
 ???  ??? with/having -/лУУ/ →<attr> (,→<advl>?,→<subst>,→pred.) pl., possession, etc. (ATTR-INFL) <subst>
 ??? <loc><attr> "the one at" -/DAGI/ →<attr> (,→<subst>,→pred.) pl., possession, etc. (ATTR-INFL) <subst>

[edit] Substantival

name tag primary use form syntactic function following morphology follows
 ??? <gen><subst>  ??? -/NIкI(н)/ <subst> pl., case, etc. <subst>

[edit] Notes

Some things that derive <subst>
  • <pl>
  • <px*>

[edit] Postpositions

[edit] Postpositions used with nominative case nouns

  • менен "with" (but accusative with мен, сен, and ал)
Досум
dos-(I)m
friend-px1sg

/
/
/

аны
al-NI
3sg-acc.def

менен
menen
with

кинону
kino-NI
movie-acc.def

көрдүм.
kœr-DI-m
see-eyewitnessRecentPast-1sg

I saw the movie with my friend / him/her.
  • сайын "every"
Күн
kyn
day

сайын
sayın
every

киного
kino-GA
movie-dat

барчубуз
bɑr-ʧU-bIz
go-pastHabitual-1pl

We used to go to the movies every day.
  • боюнча "according to, in accordance with"
  • иретинде "as a"
  • катары "as a"
  • мурун "ago"
  • тууралуу "about"
  • жөнүндө "about"

[edit] Postpositions used with genitive case nouns

These postpositions are different from others in that they take possessive suffixes to agree with their noun, and can take any case. This is because their lemmas are actually nouns. Also, the noun argument may not show genitive morphology if it's indefinite.

  • орд- "instead of"
Менин
men-NIn
1sg-gen

ордума
orun-(I)m-GA
place-px1sg-abl

досума
dos-(I)m-GA
friend-px1sg-abl

сыйлыкты
sɯj+LIK-NI
award-acc.def

берип
ber-(I)p
give-cnvPerf

салган.
sɑl-GAn-∅
(modalverb}-past-3p

They gave the prize to my friend instead of to me
  • орто- "between, in the middle of"
  • аст- "below, at the bottom of"
  • үст- "above, at the top of"
  • ич- "inside of"
Туура
tuːrɑ
correct

эмесин
emes-(s)I-NI
copula.NEG-px3-acc.def

өз
œz
own

ичимен
iʧ-(I)m-DAn
inside-px1sg-abl

оңдодум.
oɴ-LA-DI-m
right-n2v-eyewitnessRecentPast-1sg

I corrected his mistakes to myself
Үй
yj
house

ичинде
iʧ-(s)I-DA
inside-px3-loc

мышык
mɯʃɯq
cat

уктап
uq-LA-(I)p
sleep-n2v-cnvPerf

жатат.
ʤɑt-A-t
prog-nonPast-3rd

A/the cat is sleeping in(side) the house
  • сырт- "outside of"
  • түп- "in the bottom of"
  • арт- "behind, at the back of"
  • алд- "in front of"
  • жан- "next to"

[edit] Postpositions used with accusative case nouns

  • карай "towards"

[edit] Postpositions used with ablative case nouns

  • бери "since"
  • баштап "starting with/at/from"
  • кийин "after, in (with time)"
  • тышкары "besides, aside from, other than"
  • көрө "compared to"

[edit] Postpositions used with dative case nouns

  • чейин "until"
  • байланыштуу "connected to/with, tied to"
  • карабастан "in spite of"
  • карата "depending on"
  • караганда "in contrast with"

[edit] Postpositions used with certain nominal verb forms

  • менен
    • with -/(Aː)r/
    • with -/GAnI/
  • сайын
    • with -/GAn/
  • кийин
    • with -/GAn-DAn/
  • чейин
    • with -/GAn-GA/
  • тышкары
    • with -/GAn-DAn/

[edit] Adjectival morphology

Adjectives in Kyrgyz language do not change with cases, possessions and with plural (-лар) suffix. It has 4 levels : 1. Normal 2. Comparative 3. Superlative 4. Weakening

[edit] Normal Level

Ех:
1.кооз; Бишкекте кооз уйлор көп курулду.
2.саздуу,кара,көк,аккан<s/> Кара шибер, көк майсан, саздуу болот аккан суу.
3.<s>жакшы
; Энеси уулуна жакшы тарбия берген экен.

[edit] Comparative

Built by adding -ыраак (-/(I)rAAK/) suffix

Examples :

  • кызыл+ыраак redder
  • таттуу+раак sweeter
  • жакшы+раак better
  • кең+ирээк wider
  • сары+раак yellower
  • тоголок+ураак rounder
  • соо+роок more sober
  • өзгөчө+рөөк more special

#Ablative case is used for "than", e.g.:

  • мен+ден чоң+ураак bigger than me

[edit] Superlative

  1. Built by using following adverbs: эң,өтө,аябай,чымкый
    • эң жакшы "the best"
    • эң катуу "the hardest"
    • эң сары "the yellowest"
    this is often with possessive morphology after the adjective or the NP it's part of, corresponding roughly to definiteness (specifying what the known domain is) —JNW
      • бу+лар+дын эң чоң+у аныкы the biggest of these is his
      • бул алма+лар+дын эң сары+сы this is the yellowest of the apples
      • бул эң сары алма(+сы) this is the yellowest apple
  1. These aren't superlative, but similar
    • абдан кооз "really beautiful"
    • өтө сулуу "very handsome"
    • аябай ысык "extremely hot"
    • чылк семиз "very fat"
    • чымкый кызыл "very red"
    Typically in Apertium we categorise the "very, really, extremely" part as a separate POS preadv, which aids disambiguation -- e.g. a preadv is an adverb which cannot modify a verb on its own. -- Some can be both of course, but often leading to a different translation (e.g. (en) really<preadv> = (es) muy, (en) really<adv> = (es) verdaderamente) —FMT
  2. "extremetive" (?) adjectives
  3. Built by reduplication: the reduplicant is composed of all material through the first syllable nucleus of an adjective and ends with +/п/, prepended in front of the base
    • кара --> кап+кара as black as can be
    • сары --> сап+сары as yellow as can be
    • тоголок --> топ+тоголок as round as can be
    • ачуу --> ап+ачуу as spicy as can be
    • кызыл --> кып+кызыл as red as can be

[edit] "Weakening"

Weakens the meaning of adjectives built by adding -ыш,-гыл,-ылжым,-илжын,-ылтыр,-гыч,-гылт,-гылтым,-ыңкы

These are almost entirely non-productive and can probably be ignored for morphological analysis —JNW
suffixes Example Gloss
-ыш ак -- агыш,көк -- көгүш little bit white,little bit blue
-гыл кир -- киргил little bit dirty
-ылжым,-илжын көк -- көгүлжүм,кара -- каралжым little bit blue, little bit black
-ылтыр көк -- көгүлтүр blueish
-гыч сары -- саргыч yellowish
-гылт сары -- саргылт,кызыл -- кызгылт yellowish, reddish
-гылтым кызыл -- кызгылтым reddish
-ыңкы азган -- азыңкы --

[edit] Derivation

Aside from the derivation under #"Weakening", there is semi-productive derivation of adjectives from other parts of speech. This section will include some of them. Most of this morphology can probably be safely ignored as long as there's a certain amount of forms in the lexicon

[edit] -/LUU/ (N>A)

This makes adjectives out of nouns; I don't think it's universally productive, but it's quite ubiquitous

  • бакыт "happiness", бактылуу "happy"
  • белги "sign, symbol", белгилүү "famous, well-known"
  • кыймыл "motion", кыймылдуу "moving"
  • күмөн "doubt", күмөдүү "questionable"
  • ийгилик "success", ийгиликтүү "successful"

[edit] -/ʧIl/ (N>A)

  • жумушчул
  • арекетчил

[edit] -/sAK/ (N>A)

[edit] -/KI/ (?>A)

This seems to be used productively with time words and locations to make attributive adjectives

  • бүгүн "today", бүгүнкү "today's"
  • былтыр "last year", былтыркы "last year's"
  • түн "night", түнкү "nighttime (adj.)"
  • үст+ү "top+<px3>", үстүнкү "upper"
  • аст+ы "bottom+<px3>", астынкы "lower"
  • сырт "outside", сырткы "outer"

[edit] -/DAy/ (N>A)

Completely productively makes noun[phrase]s into adjectives meaning "X-like" / "like/as X". Can be used with copulas as a predicate for "A is like B".

  • күндөй жарык "as bright as day / as the sun"
  • баладай назик "as gentile as a child"
  • иттей чоң "as big as a dog" (иттей is also a dialectal/slang adverb meaning "extremely")
  • кенедей кичинекей "as small as a tick" (кенедей also means "teeny(/)tiny"
  • etc.

[edit] -/sIz/ (N>A)

Almost completely productively makes phrases like "without X" or "X-less" from noun[phrase]s. These phrases can be used to modify nouns (as ~adjectives), adjectives (as adverbs), or verbs (as ~adverbs). Some of these are lexicalised

  • акчасыз - pennyless
  • сөзсүз - "without a word" = "definitely"
  • көңүлсүз - "without 'feeling'" = "unhappy/unhappily"
  • etc.

[edit] -/LIK/ (A>N, N>N, N>A)

Derives [usually abstract] nouns from adjectives.

  • үйсүздүк homelessness
  • кедейлик poverty
  • акчасыздык monilessness
  • тамаксыздык foodlessness
  • жарыктык brightness/light
  • көктүк stubbornness
  • чоңдук largeness
  • достук friendship
  • көлдүк lake (adj.) (i.e., someone or something from or around a/the lake)

[edit] -/ʧI+lIK/ (N>N, A>N)

Derives [usually abstract] nouns from nouns.

  • үйсүзчүдүк homelessness
  • кедейчилик poverty (A>N)
  • жоокерчилик gallantry/heroicness
  • мейманчылдык hospitality
  • досчулдук friendliness
  • токойчулук forestry
  • ачкачылык hunger (A>N)
  • токчулук ~satiety (A>N)

[edit] Numerals (Сан атооч)

Numerals in it's own state do not change with cases and with plural (-лар) suffix.
Built by following suffixes:

suffixes Example Gloss
-ынчы (-нчы) бир+инчи, жети+нчи,үч+үнчү first, seventh, third (ordinals)
-оо,-өө бир+өө,алт+оо,беш+өө one,six,five of them (supporting)
-ча отуз+ча,кырк+ча,жүз+чө approximateley thirty,forty,hundred (approximate)
-дай беш+тей,он+дой,кырк+тай,жүз+дөй almost five,ten,forty,hundred (approximate)
-лаган он+догон,жүз+дөгөн,миң+деген,кырк+таган tens of,hundreds of, thousands of, forties of
-лар ? эки+лер,уч+төр, он+дор ???

[edit] Verb Morphology

Verbs morphologically can be changed according to possessions, tenses, relation suffixes(мамиле мүчөөлөрү) and condition suffixes(ыңгай мүчөөлөрү). There are 4 types of verbs.

  1. Normal verbs : көгөрөт, окуйт, баалайт, жыгышты etc...
  2. Complex verbs : ойгонгусу келип турат, кете бермек екенмин, бара жаткан элем, шыбыраша башташкан экен, etc...
  3. main verbs : окуп, сүйлөп, ойноп, күлүп, кетип, уча, жазып. etc ...
  4. helping verbs : жатат, берди,атат,койду, калды, ийди, чыкты, etc ...

[edit] Tenses

[edit] Morphotactics

Deriv:

stem + (passive)? + (causative)? + ("reflexive")? + INFL

INFL: 

stem + (negative)? + non-finite suffix 
stem + (negative)? + finite suffix + person agreement



[edit] Present continuous Tense (учур чак)

1. Simple

suffixes examples gloss
-ууда жакшыр+ууда getting well,progressing
-а,-е(-й) оку+й+м,иште+й+м studying, working

2. Complех

suffixes examples gloss
-a бар+а жатат, he/she is going
-е(-й) сүйлө+й баштайт he is going to speak
-ып ырда+п жатат, иште+п жүрөт he is singing, he is working

[edit] Future Tense (Келер Чак)

1.Definite Future Tense {-а,-й + possessions }

suffixes examples gloss
-a бар+а+мын, бар+а+сың, бар+а+т I will go, you will go, he will go
оку+й+буз, оку+й+суң, оку+й+т, we will read, you will read,he will read

2.Not Definite Future tense {-ар + possessions }

suffixes examples gloss
-aр бар+ар+мын, бар+ар+сың, бар+ар, бар+ар+сыз, бар+ар+сыздар maybe i/you/he will go
-мак+ экен + possessions бар+мак экемин,бар+мак экенсиң, бар+мак экенсиз might go ? ?  ?

[edit] Past Tense (Өткөн чак)

1.Definite past tense {-ды,ды + possessions + эле}

suffixes examples gloss
-ды + possession бар+ды,ал+ды+м,оку+ду+ң,кел+ди+ңиз he went, i took, you read, you came
-ды + possessions + эле бар+ды эле,ал+ды+м эле,оку+ду+ң эле,кел+ди+ңиз эле he went, i took, you read, you came

2.Accidental past tense (капыскы өткөн чак) {-ып,ып + тыр + possessions}

suffixes examples gloss
-ып+possessions бар+ып+мын,бар+ып+сыз  ? ? ?
ып + тыр + possessions бар+ып+тыр+мын, бар+ып+тыр+сыңар  ? ? ? ?

3.General Past Tense (Жалпы) {-ган+possessions}

suffixes examples gloss
-ган+possessions бар+ган,бар+га(м), бар+ган+сың he went,i went, you went

4.Habit past tense (Адат) {-чу + possessions}

suffixes examples gloss
-чу + possessions бар+чу, кел+чү, жаз+чу+мун,оку+чу+суң, ойно+чу+суз he/she/i/you regularly went,came,wrote,read,played


[edit] Finite verb forms

name positive negative Tense Aspect Mood Voice Evidentiality
RecentEyewitness past ◌-DI-P4 ◌-GAn жок-P3 past (indicative?) eyewitness
RecentNonEyewitness past ◌-(I)p-(tIr)-P3 ◌-BAp-(tIr)-P3 past (often surprise) non-eyewitness
◌-GAn-P3 ◌-GAn эмес-P3 past
◌-чU-P3 ◌-чU эмес-P3 past imperfect, habitual
"aorist" ◌-E-P6 ◌-BA-й-P6 habitual, future

[edit] Non-finite verb forms

[edit] Used attributively to NP

These make whole verb phrases usable like adjectives to modify nouns. This is one type of relative clause.

They should be called "verbal adjectives" or "adjectival participles". A potential tag prefix might be <gp>.

name positive negative TAMVE
<glp_fut> <gpf> -A(ː)р -BA(ː)с
<glp_pot2>?? <gpo> -GUс
<glp_perf> <gpr> -GAн -BAGAн
<glp_pot> <gpt> -чU -BAчU
<glp_impf> <gpi> -E турган -BAй турган
-(U)U-чU
<glp_notyet> -E элек "not yet"

[edit] Used as NP

These make verb[ phrase]s usable as noun[ phrase]-like objects of other verbs. This is one type of relative clause.

These should probably be called "gerunds", with a tag prefix of <ger_>.

name positive negative TAMVE
<ger_past>, <ger_pres> GAn BAGAn past; present
<ger_fut>, <ger_irrl>? A(ː)r BA(ː)s irrealis/future/potential
<ger_pres>?, <ger_real>? (I)ʃ BAʃ single instance?
<ger_gnrl>, <ger_pres>? (U)U BOO general?
-E элек "not yet"

[edit] Used as adverbial element

These make verbs which are used as adjuncts to another verb phrase. They could be called adverbial participles or something similar. These act like subordinate clauses (sometimes ones formed with "subordinate conjunctions", and sometimes ones formed with prepositions) in other languages. More things that translate this way are listed below in the table "Forms based on gerunds".

name tag positive negative gloss TAMVE
perfective <gnp> ◌-Iп ◌-BAй (-BA-E) "having ◌"
purposive <gnu> ◌-GAнI ◌-BA-GAнI "in order to"
<gn?> ◌-мAйIнчA —? "as long as not ◌"
conditional participle <gnc> ◌-сA-P4 ◌-BA-сA-P4 "if ◌"

[edit] Used with other verbs

These make verbs which are only used with auxiliaries and modals in single-predicate finite constructions. They should probably just be called participles (<prc>), or something similar.

name tag positive negative gloss TAMVE
realis participle <prc_real> <prcr> ◌-Iп ◌-BAй (-BA-E) many
irrealis participle <prc_irre> <prci> ◌-E ◌-BAй (-BA-E) various
futurative participle <prc_fut> <prcf> ◌-GAнI "be planning to" (with жат-)
desirative participle <prc_des> <prcd> ◌-GI-<px*> "want to" (with кел-)
subjunctive participle <prc_subj> ◌-Eт ◌-BAйт (-BA-Eт) "would [like to]" (with эле-)

[edit] Old version of used as adverbial element

These make a verb phrase "subordinated" to another verb phrase. These usually translate as "subordinate clauses", I guess.

These should probably be called "adverbial participles" and be named based on the type of adverbial clause they create. A potential tag prefix could be <prt_> for "participle"?

name tag positive negative gloss TAMVE № predicates
<prt_plan>? ◌-GAнI "planning to"/"in order to" 1, 2
conditional participle <cond> <prt_cond> ◌-сA-P4 ◌-BA-сA-P4 "if ◌" tense depends on matrix verb 1, 2
<cond> деле/да <prt_cond> деле/да ◌-сA-P4 деле/да ◌-BA-сA-P4 деле/да "even though/if ◌" tense depends on matrix verb 1, 2
manner participle <cv_perf> <prt_perf> ◌-Iп ◌-BAй — (~same as next VP) 1, 2
manner participle 2 <cv_impf> <prt_impf> ◌-E ◌-BAй — (~same as next VP) 1, 2?
resultative participial construction? <imp> <quot><cv_perf> ◌-P5 деп ◌-BA-P5 деп "so that ◌" (tenseless?) 1, 2
◌-мAйIнчA "as long as not ◌" 2
Forms based on gerunds
<ger_fut> <inst> ◌-A(ː)р-P2 менен "as soon as ◌" tense depends on matrix verb 2
<ger_past><loc> ◌-GAndA ◌-BAGAndA ~"when ◌" tense depends on matrix verb 2
◌-GAн-LIK-DAн ◌-BA-GAн-LIK-DAн "because/since [VP]-ed" 2
<ger_past><abl> after ◌-GAн-DAн кийин "after ◌-ing" 2
◌-GAн-чA "until ◌" 2
<ger_pres><dat> чейин ◌-GAн-GA чейин "before ◌-ing" 2
◌-GAн-DAн соң "since" (temporal) 2
◌-GAн-P2 менен "despite ◌-ing" 2
◌-(I)ш үчүн ◌-BA-ш үчүн "in order to ..." 2

[edit] Random glosses

  1. Кыргыз Совет Энциклопедиясынын Башкы редакторунун биринчи орун басары болуп да иштеген.
Кыргыз
qɯrʁɯz
Kyrgyz
Kyrgyz

Совет
soˈvʲet
Soviet
Soviet

Энциклопедия-сы-нын
entsˠikloˈpedʲija-(s)I-NIn
Encyclopaedia-px3-gen
Encyclopaedia's

Баш-кы
bɑʃ-KI
head-attrib
chief

редактор-у-нун
rʲeˈdaktor-(s)I-NIn
editor-px3-gen
editor's

бир-инчи
bir-InʧI
one-ord
first

орун бас-ар-ы
orun bɑs-(A(ː))r-(s)I
place occupy-v2n-px3
delegate

бол-уп
bol-(I)p
be-cnvPf
~as

да
conj
also

иш-те-ген.
iʃ-LA-GAn
work-n2v-past(-3rd)
(he) worked

He also worked as the first spokesperson/representative/agent of the Kyrgyz Soviet Encyclopaedia's chief editor.
  1. Кыргыз Совет Энциклопедиясынын Башкы редакторунун биринчи орун басары болуп да иштеген досум баарына жагат.
Кыргыз
qɯrʁɯz
Kyrgyz
Kyrgyz

Совет
soˈvʲet
Soviet
Soviet

Энциклопедия-сы-нын
entsˠikloˈpedʲija-(s)I-NIn
Encyclopaedia-px3-gen
Encyclopaedia's

Баш-кы
bɑʃ-KI
head-attrib
chief

редактор-у-нун
rʲeˈdaktor-(s)I-NIn
editor-px3-gen
editor's

бир-инчи
bir-InʧI
one-ord
first

орун бас-ар-ы
orun bɑs-(A(ː))r-(s)I
place occupy-v2n-px3
delegate

бол-уп
bol-(I)p
be-cnvPf
~as

да
conj
also

иш-те-ген
iʃ-LA-GAn
work-n2v-pastAttrib
who worked

дос-ум
dos-(I)m
friend-px1sg
my friend

баар-ы-на
bɑr-(s)I-GA
exist-px3-dat
to everyone

жаг-ат.
ʤɑq-E-t
be.liked-nonPast-3rd
is liked

Everyone likes my friend who also worked as the first spokesperson/representative/agent of the Kyrgyz Soviet Encyclopaedia's chief editor.
  1. Кыргыз Совет Энциклопедиясынын Башкы редакторунун биринчи орун басары болуп да иштегени баарына жагат.
Кыргыз
qɯrʁɯz
Kyrgyz
Kyrgyz

Совет
soˈvʲet
Soviet
Soviet

Энциклопедия-сы-нын
entsˠikloˈpedʲija-(s)I-NIn
Encyclopaedia-px3-gen
Encyclopaedia's

Баш-кы
bɑʃ-KI
head-attrib
chief

редактор-у-нун
rʲeˈdaktor-(s)I-NIn
editor-px3-gen
editor's

бир-инчи
bir-InʧI
one-ord
first

орун бас-ар-ы
orun bɑs-(A(ː))r-(s)I
place occupy-v2n-px3
delegate

бол-уп
bol-(I)p
be-cnvPf
~as

да
conj
also

иш-те-ген-и
iʃ-LA-GAn-(S)I
work-n2v-pastGer-px3
having worked

баар-ы-на
bɑr-(s)I-GA
exist-px3-dat
to everyone

жаг-ат.
ʤɑq-E-t
be.liked-nonPast-3rd
is liked

Everyone likes that he also worked as the first spokesperson/representative/agent of the Kyrgyz Soviet Encyclopaedia's chief editor.


  1. Боюң узун экенин билген жокмун.
Бой-уң
boj-(I)ŋ
height-px2sg
your height

узун
uzun
long
~tall

экен-и-н
eken-(s)I-NI
cop.AorRelNom-px3-acc.def
that it ~is

бил-ген жок-мун.
bil-GAN joq-mIn
know-RecentEyewitnessPast neg-1sg
I didn't know

I didn't know that you were (i.e., still are) tall
  1. Боюң узун болгонун билген жокмун.
Бой-уң
boj-(I)ŋ
height-px2sg
your height

узун
uzun
long
~tall

бол-гон-у-н
bol-GAN-(s)I-NI
cop-PastRelNom-px3-acc.def
that it was

бил-ген жок-мун.
bil-GAN joq-mIn
know-RecentEyewitnessPast neg-1sg
I didn't know

I didn't know that you were (i.e., still are) tall
  1. Чачың узун экенин билбептирмин.
Чач-ың
ʧɑʧ-(I)ŋ
hair-px2sg
your hair

узун
uzun
long
long

экен-и-н
eken-(s)I-NI
cop.AorRelNom-px3-acc.def
that it ~is

бил-бе-птир-мин.
bil-BA-ptIr-mIn
know-neg-RecentNonEyewitnessPast-1sg
I didn't know

I didn't [used to] know that your hair was (i.e., still is / always has been) long
  1. Чачың узун болгонун билбептирмин.
Чач-ың
ʧɑʧ-(I)ŋ
hair-px2sg
your hair

узун
uzun
long
long

бол-гон-у-н
bol-GAN-(s)I-NI
cop-PastRelNom-px3-acc.def
that it was

бил-бе-птир-мин.
bil-BA-ptIr-mIn
know-neg-RecentNonEyewitnessPast-1sg
I didn't know

I didn't [used to] know that your hair was (i.e., still is / always has been) long
  1. Чачыңды кече кырктырганыңды билген жокмун.
Чач-ың-ды
ʧɑʧ-(I)ŋ-NI
hair-px2sg-acc.def
your hair

кече
keʧe
yesterday
yesterday

кырк-тыр-ган-ың-ды
qɯrq-DIr-GAn-(I)ŋ-NI
shear-caus-PastRelNom-px2sg-acc.def
that you had cut

бил-ген жок-мун.
bil-GAN joq-mIn
know-RecentEyewitnessPast neg-1sg
I didn't know

I didn't know that you had your hair cut yesterday.

[edit] Phonology

[edit] Things that happen to {I}

  • harmonises
  • gets deleted
    • after / п:б / and / м / before / {I} п /
т а м > {I} п : таамп (т:т а:аа м:м >:0 {I}:0 п:п )
т а п > {I} п : таап (т:т а:аа п:0 >:0 {I}:0 п:п )
  • merges with preceding й to become ю
к о й > {I} п : коюп

[edit] Things that {I} triggers

  • lengthening of preceding LowVow (with above deletion)
    • with intervening / п:б / and / м /
    • when / {I} п /
т а м > {I} п : ээмп
т а п > {I} п : таап

[edit] Things that happen to п

  • turns to б intervocalically before syllable boundary
т а п > {E} : таба (т:т а:а п:б {E}:а)
  • gets deleted before / {I} п / after low vowel
т а п > {I} п : таап (т:т а:аа п:0 >:0 {I}:0 п:п )

[edit] Words

Some thoughts on considering _things_ separate words or not:

  • Does the _thing_ attach to any word/POS ?
  • Do other morphemes come after the _thing_ ?
  • Does the _thing_ harmonise ?
  • Should the _thing_ have its own node in a tree/graph structure ?
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