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Indonesian and Malaysian/Previous morphology

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[edit] Tagset

Original Part-of-Speech

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<adj> adjective lemma besar besar<adj><pst> big
<n> noun lemma buku buku<n><bare><sg> book
<num> number lemma tujuh tujuh<num><card> seven
<prn> pronoun saya saya<prn><pers><p1><sg> I, me, my (depending on the position)
<det> determiner bukunya buku<n><bare><sg><det> can be 'his/her book' or 'the book'
<cnjcoo> coordinating conjunction dan dan<cnjcoo> and
<cnjsub> subordinating conjunction ketika ketika<cnjsub> when (not the WH question word)
<vblex> verb lemma kirim kirim<vblex><actv><perf><sg> deliver
<part> particle lah lah<part> -
<mod> modal akan akan<mod> will
<ij> interjection ah ah<ij> -
<qst> question word apa apa<qst> what
<pr> preposition lemma di di<pr> in/on double preposition: 'di dalam' = inside, 'di atas' = above, 'di bawah' = below


Personal Pronoun

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<p1> first person saya saya<prn><pers><p1><sg> I, me, my (depending on the position) Saya is the formal 'I'. There are plenty of unformal 'I' variations
<p2> second person anda anda<prn><pers><p2><sg> You, your (depending on the position) Anda is the formal 'You'. There are plenty of unformal 'You' variations
<p3> third person mereka mereka<prn><pers><p3><pl> they, them, their (depending on the position)

Number

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<sg> singular buku buku<n><bare><sg> book
melompat lompat<vblex><actv><imperf><sg> jump
<pl> plural buku-buku buku<n><bare><pl> books this number plurality feature not only occurs in nouns. It is not only show the plurality on number of entity, but also show plurality of the event or referring to plural entities
melompat-lompat lompat<vblex><actv><imperf><pl> jump repeatedly


Derivation Mark (not yet added/implemented)

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<der_n>
<der_adj>
<der_v>
<der_num>

Numeral Type

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<card> cardinal number tujuh tujuh<num><card> seven
<ord> ordinal number ketujuh tujuh<num><ord> the seventh
<coll> collective number bertujuh tujuh<num><coll> in group of seven
<refer> referential number tujuh-tujuhnya tujuh<num><refer> all the seven of them
ketujuh-tujuhnya tujuh<num><refer> all the seven of them


Verb Type

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<vbhaver> verb ‘to have’ berpayung payung<n><actv><perf><vbhaver><bare><sg> having umbrella(payung)
<vbser> verb ‘to be’ perbesar besar<adj><actv><perf><vbser><sg> making something to be big

Voice Type

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<actv> active voice mengirim kirim<vblex><actv><imperf><sg> send
<pasv> passive voice dikirim kirim<vblex><pasv><imperf><sg> being sent

Aspect Type

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<perf> perfective aspect kirim kirim<vblex><actv><perf><sg> send
<imperf> imperfective aspect mengirim kirim<vblex><actv><imperf><sg> send

Noun Type

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<bare> original bare noun type buku buku<n><bare><sg> book
<abstr> derived abstract type kedinginan dingin<adj><abstr><sg> coldness
<actio> derived act noun pengiriman kirim<vblex><actio><sg> delivery
pembukuan buku<n><actio><sg> archiving
<actor> derived actor noun pengirim kirim<vblex><actor><sg> deliverer
<ent> derived entity noun kiriman kirim<vblex><ent><sg> package
<theme> derived theme noun pertokoan toko<n><theme><sg> something related to shop

Adjective Type

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<pst> original bare adjective type besar besar<adj><bare> big
<sup> superlative adjective terbesar besar<adj><sup> the biggest
<exceed> exceed adjective kebesaran besar<adj><exceed> too big equally grammatical with "terlalu besar"
<manner> manner adjective keibuan ibu<n><manner> motherly
<uni> union adjective seibu ibu<n><bare><uni><sg> same/one mother
<possib> adjectival phrase secepat-cepatnya cepat<adj><possib> as quick as possible
sebesar-besarnya besar<adj><possib> as big as possible

Clitic Mark

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<enc> enclitic bukuku buku<n><bare><sg>+aku<prn><pers><enc><p1><sg><pos> my book The clitics are pronoun. In this example another form will be "buku aku", where it also grammatically correct. Sequence of noun followed by pronoun, makes the pronoun becomes possesive pronoun
<pro> proclitic kukirim aku<prn><pers><pro><p1><sg>+kirim<vblex><actv><perf><sg> I send The clitics are pronoun. In this example another form will be "aku cari", where it also grammatically correct. Sequence of pronoun followed by verb mostly makes the pronoun becomes the subject in the sentence

Transitivity Mark

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<appl> Applicative kirimi kirim<vblex><actv><perf><appl><sg> send
<caus> Causative kirimkan kirim<vblex><actv><perf><caus><sg> send

Others

Tag Description Example Example's Analysis Translation in English Notes
<cap> capitalized word mark Buku buku<n><bare><sg><cap> Book Capitalized word
<pos> possesive bukuku buku<n><bare><sg>+aku<prn><pers><enc><p1><sg><pos> my book The clitics are pronoun. In this example another form will be "buku aku", where it also grammatically correct. Sequence of noun followed by pronoun, makes the pronoun becomes possesive pronoun

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