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Dravidian languages

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The Dravidian languages (dra) constitute a language family of about 70 languages spoken primarily in South Asia. The four most populous Dravidian languages, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, and Malayalam, are recognized by the Constitution of India and encompass a significant portion of the over 215 million Dravidian speakers.

The master plan involves generating independent finite-state transducers for each language, and then making individual dictionaries and transfer rules for every pair. The current status of these goals is listed below.

[edit] Status

The ultimate goal is to have multi-purposable transducers for a variety of Dravidian languages. These can then be paired for X→Y translation with the addition of a CG for language X and transfer rules / dictionary for the pair X→Y. Below is listed development progress for each language's transducers and dictionary pairs.

[edit] Transducers

Once a transducer has ~80% coverage on a range of medium-large corpora we can say it is "working". Over 90% and it can be considered to be "production".

name language native name ISO 639 formalism state stems paradigms coverage location primary authors
-2 -3
apertium-mal Malayalam മലയാളം ml mal HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 14313 - apertium-mal (incubator) Tachyons, Francis Tyers
apertium-tel Telugu తెలుగు te tel lttoolbox prototype apertium-tel (incubator) kvsprasad

[edit] Existing language pairs

Text in italics denotes language pairs in the incubator. Regular text denotes a developing language pair in staging, while text in bold denotes a stable well-working language pair in trunk and text in bold and italics denotes a pair in staging. Bidix stems as counted with dixcounter are displayed below.

tel mal
tel -
mal -
eng eng-tel

[edit] Dravidian languages by subgroup

The Dravidian languages form a close-knit family. Most scholars agree on four groups: North, Central (Kolami–Parji), South-Central (Telugu–Kui) and South Dravidian:

  • Central (Kolami–Parji) languages
    • Kolami-Naiki languages (Kolami)
    • Parji-Gadaba languages (Duruwa, Gadaba)
  • Northern languages (Brahui, Kurux, Sauria)
  • Southern (Tamil–Tulu) languages
  • South-Central (Telugu-Kui) languages
    • Gondi-Kui languages (Gondi, Konda-Kui)
    • Telugu languages (Telugu, Savara, Chenchu)

[edit] Samples

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Language Text
Kannada ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಮಾನವರೂ ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರರಾಗಿಯೇ ಜನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾರೆ. ಹಾಗೂ ಘನತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಹಕ್ಕುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಮಾನರಾಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ವಿವೇಕ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಕರಣ ಗಳನ್ನು ಪದೆದವರಾದ್ದ ರಿಂದ ಅವರು ಪರಸ್ಪರ ಸಹೋದರ ಭಾವದಿಂದ ವರ್ತಿಸಚೀಕು.
Malayalam മനുഷ്യരെല്ലാവരും തുല്യാവകാശങ്ങളോടും അന്തസ്സോടും സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യത്തോടുംകൂടി ജനിച്ചിട്ടുള്ളവരാണ്‌. അന്യോന്യം ഭ്രാതൃഭാവത്തോടെ പെരുമാറുവാനാണ്‌ മനുഷ്യന്നു വിവേകബുദ്ധിയും മനസ്സാക്ഷിയും സിദ്ധമായിരിക്കുന്നത്‌.
Tamil மனிதப் பிறிவியினர் சகலரும் சுதந்திரமாகவே பிறக்கின்றனர் ; அவர்கள் மதிப்பிலும், உரிமைகளிலும் சமமானவர்கள், அவர்கள் நியாயத்தையும் மனச்சாட்சியையும் இயற்பண்பாகப் பெற்றவர்கள். அவர்கள் ஒருவருடனொருவர் சகோதர உணர்வுப் பாங்கில் நடந்துகொள்ளல் வேண்டும்.

[edit] Vulnerability

This table summarizes the vulnerability of various Dravidian languages. Data is derived from the ‘Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, © UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/culture/languages-atlas’ and Ethnologue.

Language ISO639-3 Location Speakers Status
Ethnologue UNESCO
Nagarchal nbg India 0 10 (Extinct) -
Urali url India 6,440 9 (Dormant) -
Ullatan ull India 16,700 9 (Dormant) -
Malaryan mjq India 35,000 9 (Dormant) -
Bellari brw India 1,000 7 (Shifting) 4 (Critically endangered)
Manna-Dora mju India 30,000 7 (Shifting) -
Bazigar bfr India 58,200 7 (Shifting) -
Vishavan vis India 150 6b (Threatened) -
Aranadan aaf India 200 6b (Threatened) -
Allar all India 350 6b (Threatened) -
Kadar kej India 1,960 6b (Threatened) -
Thachanadan thn India 3,000 6b (Threatened) -
Mannan mjv India 7,850 6b (Threatened) -
Kumbaran wkb India 10,000 6b (Threatened) -
Malavedan mjr India 12,600 6b (Threatened) -
Koraga, Korra kfd India 14,000 6b (Threatened) 4 (Critically endangered)
Kurux, Nepali kxl Nepal 28,600 6b (Threatened) -
Kurichiya kfh India 29,400 6b (Threatened) -
Pardhan pch India 135,000 6b (Threatened) -
Kui kxu India 916,000 6b (Threatened) 1 (Vulnerable)
Koraga, Mudu vmd India - 6b (Threatened) -
Holiya hoy India 500 6a (Vigorous) -
Kalanadi wkl India 750 6a (Vigorous) -
Kunduvadi wku India 1,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Pathiya pty India 1,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Mala Malasar ima India 1,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Toda tcx India 1,560 6a (Vigorous) 4 (Critically endangered)
Kurumba, Alu xua India 2,500 6a (Vigorous) -
Kudiya kfg India 2,800 6a (Vigorous) -
Manda mha India 4,040 6a (Vigorous) 4 (Critically endangered)
Eravallan era India 5,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Malapandaram mjp India 5,850 6a (Vigorous) -
Malasar ymr India 7,760 6a (Vigorous) -
Paliyan pcf India 9,520 6a (Vigorous) -
Kolami, Southeastern nit India 10,000 6a (Vigorous) 4 (Critically endangered)
Kumarbhag Paharia kmj India 12,500 6a (Vigorous) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Gadaba, Pottangi Ollar gdb India 15,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Malankuravan mjo India 18,600 6a (Vigorous) -
Kanikkaran kev India 19,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Kaikadi kep India 23,700 6a (Vigorous) -
Sholaga sle India 24,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Chenchu cde India 26,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Kurumba, Mullu kpb India 26,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Mukha-Dora mmk India 29,700 6a (Vigorous) -
Khirwar kwx India 34,300 6a (Vigorous) -
Kamar keq India 40,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Duruwa pci India 51,200 6a (Vigorous) 4 (Critically endangered)
Maria mrr India 165,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Waddar wbq India 172,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Bharia bha India 197,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Maria, Dandami daq India 200,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Muria, Eastern emu India 200,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Savara svr India 253,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Pengo peg India 350,000 6a (Vigorous) 4 (Critically endangered)
Muria, Far Western fmu India 400,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Muria, Western mut India 400,000 6a (Vigorous) -
Kota kfe India 930 5 (Developing) 4 (Critically endangered)
Kurumba, Attapady pkr India 1,370 5 (Developing) -
Muduga udg India 3,370 5 (Developing) -
Chetti, Wayanad ctt India 5,000 5 (Developing) -
Gadaba, Mudhili gau India 8,000 5 (Developing) -
Muthuvan muv India 16,800 5 (Developing) -
Konda-Dora kfc India 20,000 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Ravula yea India 26,900 5 (Developing) -
Kurumba, Betta xub India 32,000 5 (Developing) -
Kurumba, Jennu xuj India 35,000 5 (Developing) -
Sauria Paharia mjt India 61,000 5 (Developing) -
Yerukula yeu India 69,500 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Paniya pcg India 94,000 5 (Developing) -
Gondi, Southern ggo India 100,000 5 (Developing) -
Kolami, Northwestern kfb India 122,000 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Badaga bfq India 135,000 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Kuvi kxv India 158,000 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Kurumba, Kannada kfi India 180,000 5 (Developing) 4 (Critically endangered)
Kodava kfa India 200,000 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Irula iru India 200,000 5 (Developing) 1 (Vulnerable)
Koya kff India 362,000 5 (Developing) -
Tulu tcy India 1,720,000 5 (Developing) 1 (Vulnerable)
Kurux kru India & Bangladesh 1,944,200 5 (Developing) 1 (Vulnerable)
Gondi, Northern gno India 1,950,000 5 (Developing) -
Brahui brh Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan 4,220,000 5 (Developing) 1 (Vulnerable)
Malayalam mal India 33,534,600 2 (Provincial) -
Kannada kan India 37,739,040 2 (Provincial) -
Tamil tam India 68,763,360 2 (Provincial) -
Telugu tel India 74,049,000 2 (Provincial) -

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Dravidian languages", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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