User:Techievena/GSoC 2018 Work Product Submission

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Abinash Senapati[edit]

Hi I am Abinash, a final year undergraduate in the department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. I was a Google Summer of Code student for Apertium over the summer of 2018 and primarily worked on lttoolbox and apertium-core. My project involved extending the capability of performing morphographemics and adding lexical weights to the lttoolbox transducer in order to enable more complex translations with the transducer.

Project Title[edit]

Extend lttoolbox to have the power of HFST

GSoC Blog[edit]

Public Profiles[edit]

GitHub: Techievena
GitLab: Techievena
IRC nick: Techievena
Apertium wiki: Techievena


Francis Tyers and Tommi Pirinen


tarball: Download
zip: Download

Link to commits and repositories I have worked on[edit]

Extend lttoolbox to have the power of HFST[edit]

Work Done[edit]




$ cat test.att
0	1	c	c	4.567895
1	2	a	a	0.989532
2	3	t	t	2.796193
3	4	@0@	+	-3.824564
4	5	@0@	n	1.824564
5	0.525487
4	5	@0@	v	2.845989
$ lt-comp lr test.att test.bin 
main@standard 6 6
$ lt-print test.bin
0	1	c	c	4.567895	
1	2	a	a	0.989532	
2	3	t	t	2.796193	
3	4	ε	+	-3.824564	
4	5	ε	n	1.824564	
4	5	ε	v	2.845989	
5	0.525487
$ echo "cats" | lt-proc test.bin
$ echo "cats" | lt-proc -W test.bin
$ echo "cats" | lt-proc -N 1 test.bin
$ echo "cats" | lt-proc -W -N 1 test.bin
$ lt-proc -h
lt-proc: process a stream with a letter transducer
USAGE: lt-proc [ -a | -b | -c | -d | -e | -g | -n | -p | -s | -t | -v | -h -z -w ] [-W] [-N N] [-L N] [ -i icx_file ] [ -r rcx_file ] fst_file [input_file [output_file]]
  -a, --analysis:          morphological analysis (default behavior)
  -b, --bilingual:         lexical transfer
  -c, --case-sensitive:    use the literal case of the incoming characters
  -d, --debugged-gen       morph. generation with all the stuff
  -e, --decompose-nouns:   Try to decompound unknown words
  -g, --generation:        morphological generation
  -i, --ignored-chars:     specify file with characters to ignore
  -r, --restore-chars:     specify file with characters to diacritic restoration
  -l, --tagged-gen:        morphological generation keeping lexical forms
  -m, --tagged-nm-gen:     same as -l but without unknown word marks
  -n, --non-marked-gen     morph. generation without unknown word marks
  -o, --surf-bilingual:    lexical transfer with surface forms
  -p, --post-generation:   post-generation
  -s, --sao:               SAO annotation system input processing
  -t, --transliteration:   apply transliteration dictionary
  -v, --version:           version
  -z, --null-flush:        flush output on the null character 
  -w, --dictionary-case:   use dictionary case instead of surface case
  -C, --careful-case:      use dictionary case if present, else surface
  -I, --no-default-ignore: skips loading the default ignore characters
  -W, --show-weights:      Print final analysis weights (if any)
  -N, --analyses:          Output no more than N analyses (if the transducer is weighted, the N best analyses)
  -L, --weight-classes:    Output no more than N best weight classes (where analyses with equal weight constitute a class)
  -h, --help:              show this help
$ cat test.dix
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
  <sdef n="n"     c="Noun"/>

  <sdef n="ma"    c="Masculine (animate)"/>
  <sdef n="mi"    c="Masculine (inanimate)"/>
  <sdef n="nt"    c="Neuter"/>
  <sdef n="f"     c="Feminine"/>

  <sdef n="sg"    c="Singular"/>
  <sdef n="du"    c="Dual"/>
  <sdef n="pl"    c="Plural"/>

  <sdef n="nom"   c="Nominative"/>
  <sdef n="gen"   c="Genitive"/>
  <sdef n="dat"   c="Dative"/>
  <sdef n="acc"   c="Accusative"/>
  <sdef n="ins"   c="Instrumental"/>
  <sdef n="loc"   c="Locative"/>
  <sdef n="voc"   c="Vocative"/>
  <pardef n="nan__n_ma">
    <e w="1.56"><p><l></l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="sg"/><s n="nom"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="2.56"><p><l>a</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="sg"/><s n="gen"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="3.56"><p><l>ej</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="sg"/><s n="dat"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="4.56"><p><l>a</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="sg"/><s n="acc"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="5.56"><p><l>om</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="sg"/><s n="ins"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="6.56"><p><l>je</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="sg"/><s n="loc"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="7.56"><p><l>o</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="sg"/><s n="voc"/></r></p></e>

    <e w="8.56"><p><l>aj</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="du"/><s n="nom"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="9.56"><p><l>ow</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="du"/><s n="gen"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="10.56"><p><l>omaj</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="du"/><s n="dat"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="11.56"><p><l>ow</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="du"/><s n="acc"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="12.56"><p><l>omaj</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="du"/><s n="ins"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="13.56"><p><l>omaj</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="du"/><s n="loc"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="14.56"><p><l>aj</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="du"/><s n="voc"/></r></p></e>

    <e w="15.56"><p><l>ojo</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="pl"/><s n="nom"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="16.56"><p><l>ow</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="pl"/><s n="gen"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="17.56"><p><l>am</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="pl"/><s n="dat"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="18.56"><p><l>ow</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="pl"/><s n="acc"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="19.56"><p><l>ami</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="pl"/><s n="ins"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="20.56"><p><l>ach</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="pl"/><s n="loc"/></r></p></e>
    <e w="21.56"><p><l>ojo</l><r><s n="n"/><s n="ma"/><s n="pl"/><s n="voc"/></r></p></e>

  <section id="main" type="standard">
    <e lm="nan" w="22.56"><i>nan</i><par n="nan__n_ma"/></e>    

$ lt-comp lr test.dix test-mor.bin
main@standard 35 54
$ lt-print test-mor.bin 
0	1	n	n	0.000000	
1	2	a	a	0.000000	
2	3	n	n	22.560000	
3	4	ε	<n>	0.000000	
3	5	a	<n>	0.000000	
3	6	e	<n>	0.000000	
3	7	o	<n>	0.000000	
3	8	j	<n>	0.000000	
4	9	ε	<ma>	0.000000	
5	10	ε	<ma>	0.000000	
5	11	j	<ma>	0.000000	
5	12	m	<ma>	0.000000	
5	13	c	<ma>	0.000000	
6	14	j	<ma>	0.000000	
7	15	ε	<ma>	0.000000	
7	16	j	<ma>	0.000000	
7	17	m	<ma>	0.000000	
7	18	w	<ma>	0.000000	
8	19	e	<ma>	0.000000	
9	20	ε	<sg>	0.000000	
10	21	ε	<sg>	0.000000	
11	22	ε	<du>	0.000000	
12	23	ε	<pl>	0.000000	
12	24	i	<pl>	0.000000	
13	25	h	<pl>	0.000000	
14	26	ε	<sg>	0.000000	
15	27	ε	<sg>	0.000000	
16	28	o	<pl>	0.000000	
17	29	ε	<sg>	0.000000	
17	30	a	<du>	0.000000	
18	31	ε	<du>	0.000000	
18	32	ε	<pl>	0.000000	
19	33	ε	<sg>	0.000000	
20	34	ε	<nom>	1.560000	
21	34	ε	<gen>	2.560000	
21	34	ε	<acc>	4.560000	
22	34	ε	<nom>	8.560000	
22	34	ε	<voc>	14.560000	
23	34	ε	<dat>	17.560000	
24	34	ε	<ins>	19.560000	
25	34	ε	<loc>	20.560000	
26	34	ε	<dat>	3.560000	
27	34	ε	<voc>	7.560000	
28	34	ε	<nom>	15.560000	
28	34	ε	<voc>	21.560000	
29	34	ε	<ins>	5.560000	
30	34	j	<dat>	10.560000	
30	34	j	<ins>	12.560000	
30	34	j	<loc>	13.560000	
31	34	ε	<gen>	9.560000	
31	34	ε	<acc>	11.560000	
32	34	ε	<gen>	16.560000	
32	34	ε	<acc>	18.560000	
33	34	ε	<loc>	6.560000	
34	0.000000
$ echo "nanow" | lt-proc -W test-mor.bin 


Overall, it was a wonderful and satisfying experience. I had a great learning experience and had a great time coding for Apertium.
But in the meanwhile a lot of unexpected challenges popped up which were very hard to get over. Debugging such a large codebase in C++ language and that too when you are modifying three repositories simultaneously was a huge pain in the ass. I got stuck in the debugging task for a long time during the GSoC period. Hadn't been there the help from my mentors and the other mentors at Apertium, I don't think I could have fixed that bug. As the display of my laptop broke during the second phase, I had a really hard time contributing then. For almost 2-3 weeks during the second phase, I didn't have my own stable system all set up for development.
Fortunately all these issues got fixed and I therefore was able to make a proper implementation of weights within the desired period.

Work to be done[edit]

Now that we can weight our morphological analysers, generators and bilingual dictionaries. Here are some problems that can be solved:

  • Having zero-context rules in your .lrx files. Now you can just put the weights directly in your bilingual dictionary
$ echo "^estación<n><f><sg>$" | lt-proc -W -b testbidix.bin

$ echo "^estación<n><f><sg>$" | lt-proc -b testbidix.bin

Analyses will be output according to lowest weight first. So you can mark your default translation as "1.0" and then all others as >1.0 ... because of how transfer works, it will always take the first, which will be the one with the lowest weight.

  • Improving POS-tagging accuracy by ordering analyses by probability. This way if your CG doesn't mop up all the ambiguity, you will get the best remaining analysis. This works kind of like the unigram tagger, but because it can be in the analyser itself, it can be easier to control.
  • Dealing with non-standard forms, instead of having to use LR/RL direction restrictions, you can just make non-standard forms have a high weight and ask for lt-proc to only generate the surface form with the lowest weight.


Thanks a lot to all my fellow apertiumers for making my so far wonderful journey with Apertium. I was very fortunate to get this opportunity to work with this wonderful organisation. All the mentors are very helpful and this project wouldn't possible without their constant help and guidance. There is always someone or the other hanging out on IRC there to help you. Thank you fellas.
I’ll definitely keep on contributing to Apertium after my GSoC.