User:Firespeaker/Turkic aorist

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  • Gnomic is about general truths, devoid of time references.
    • e.g. "Teachers write lessons." / ... / "I like rain." / "Salespeople buy lots of cars."
  • Habitual is about events that occur regularly.
    • e.g. "The teacher writes an exercise every day." / "It rains in the spring." / "I like rain when it's warm." (maybe gnomic?) / "I buy a new car every two years."
  • Episodic is about single events that occur in episodes across some span of time (in this case with undefined beginnings and ends).
    • e.g. "The teacher is writing a book." / ... / "I'm liking this rainy weather." / "I'm [in the drawn-out process of] buying a car.
  • Progressive/continuous is about an event that is in the process of occurring at the referenced time.
    • e.g. "The teacher is writing an exercise for the students." / "It's raining outside right now." / ... / "I'm buying a car right now [I'll call you back]."
  • Future is anything that happens in the future. In the situations below it mostly includes a gnomic, habitual, or perfective aspect too.
    • e.g. "The teacher will write lessons"/"an exercise every day"/"a book". / "It's going to rain tomorrow." / "I'll like this movie when I see it." / "I'm going to buy a car soon."


aspect Kyrgz Kazakh Tatar Turkish Turkmen Sakha (Khalkha)
gnomic жазат жазады яза yazıyor, yazar ýazýar, ýazar суруйар бичдэг, бичнэ[1]
habitual жазат жазады яза yazıyor, yazar ýazýar, ýazar суруйар бичдэг
episodic жазып жүрөт жазып жүр яза yazıyor суруйар бичиж байна, бичдэг байна (?)
progressive/continuous жазып жатат жазып жатыр яза yazıyor ýazıp ýatyr суруйар бичиж байна
future жазат жазады язачак, язар yazacak, (yazar?) ýazar, ýazjak суруйоҕа бичнэ

Notes and references[edit]

  1. the latter only with "stative" verbs

This paper has a good literature review and discussion of the Turkish forms.