User:Firespeaker/Turkic aorist

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  • Gnomic is about general truths, devoid of time references.
    • e.g. "Teachers write lessons." / ... / "I like rain." / "Salespeople buy lots of cars."
  • Habitual is about events that occur regularly.
    • e.g. "The teacher writes an exercise every day." / "It rains in the spring." / "I like rain when it's warm." (maybe gnomic?) / "I buy a new car every two years."
  • Episodic is about single events that occur in episodes across some span of time (in this case with undefined beginnings and ends).
    • e.g. "The teacher is writing a book." / ... / "I'm liking this rainy weather." / "I'm [in the drawn-out process of] buying a car.
  • Progressive/continuous is about an event that is in the process of occurring at the referenced time.
    • e.g. "The teacher is writing an exercise for the students." / "It's raining outside right now." / ... / "I'm buying a car right now [I'll call you back]."
  • Future is anything that happens in the future. In the situations below it mostly includes a gnomic, habitual, or perfective aspect too.
    • e.g. "The teacher will write lessons"/"an exercise every day"/"a book". / "It's going to rain tomorrow." / "I'll like this movie when I see it." / "I'm going to buy a car soon."


aspect Kyrgz Kazakh Tatar Turkish Turkmen (Khalkha)
gnomic жазат жазады яза yazıyor, yazar ýazýar, ýazar бичдэг, бичнэ[1]
habitual жазат жазады яза yazıyor, yazar ýazýar, ýazar бичдэг
episodic жазып жүрөт жазып жүр яза yazıyor бичиж байна, бичдэг байна (?)
progressive/continuous жазып жатат жазып жатыр яза yazıyor ýazıp ýatyr бичиж байна
future жазат жазады язачак, язар yazacak, (yazar?) ýazar, ýazjak бичнэ

Notes and references

  1. the latter only with "stative" verbs

This paper has a good literature review and discussion of the Turkish forms.