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- Gnomic is about general truths, devoid of time references, e.g. "Teachers write lessons."
- Habitual is about events that occur regularly, e.g. "The teacher writes an exercise every day."
- Episodic is about single events that occur in episodes across some span of time (in this case with undefined beginnings and ends), e.g. "The teacher is writing a book."
- Progressive/continuous is about an event that is in the process of occurring at the referenced time, e.g. "The teacher is writing an exercise for the students."
- Future is anything that happens in the future. In the situations below it mostly includes a gnomic, habitual, or perfective aspect too, e.g. "The teacher will write lessons"/"an exercise every day"/"a book".
|gnomic||жазат||жазады||яза||yazıyor, yazar||ýazýar, ýazar|
|habitual||жазат||жазады||яза||yazıyor, yazar||ýazýar, ýazar|
|episodic||жазып жүрөт||жазып жүр||яза||yazıyor|
|progressive/continuous||жазып жатат||жазып жатыр||яза||yazıyor||ýazıp ýatyr|
|future||жазат||жазады||язачак, язар||yazacak, (yazar?)||ýazar, ýazjak|
This paper has a good literature review and discussion of the Turkish forms.