User:Firespeaker/Turkic aorist

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  • Gnomic is about general truths, devoid of time references, e.g. "Teachers write lessons."
  • Habitual is about events that occur regularly, e.g. "The teacher writes an exercise every day."
  • Episodic is about single events that occur in episodes across some span of time (in this case with undefined beginnings and ends), e.g. "The teacher is writing a book."
  • Progressive/continuous is about an event that is in the process of occurring at the referenced time, e.g. "The teacher is writing an exercise for the students."
  • Future is anything that happens in the future. In the situations below it mostly includes a gnomic, habitual, or perfective aspect too, e.g. "The teacher will write lessons"/"an exercise every day"/"a book".


aspect Kyrgz Kazakh Tatar Turkish Turkmen
gnomic жазат жазады яза yazıyor, yazar ýazýar, ýazar
habitual жазат жазады яза yazıyor, yazar ýazýar, ýazar
episodic жазып жүрөт жазып жүр яза yazıyor
progressive/continuous жазып жатат жазып жатыр яза yazıyor ýazıp ýatyr
future жазат жазады язачак, язар yazacak, (yazar?) ýazar, ýazjak

This paper has a good literature review and discussion of the Turkish forms.