Turkic languages

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The Turkic languages include Turkish, Azeri, Uzbek, Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Chuvash, Turkmen, Bashkir, Sakha, and several dozen other languages. The languages are related with varying levels of mutual intelligibility. A team called Apertium Turkic aims to enhance MT coverage of these languages with apertium.

The ultimate master plan involves generating independent finite-state transducers for each language, and then making individual dictionaries and transfer rules for every pair. The current status of these goals is listed below.


The ultimate goal is to have multi-purpose transducers for a variety of Turkic languages. These can then be paired for X→Y translation with the addition of a CG for language X and transfer rules / dictionary for the pair X→Y. Below is listed development progress for each language's transducers and dictionary pairs.


See also: Turkic lexicon and Languages

Once a transducer has ~80% coverage on a range of medium-large corpora we can say it is "working". Over 90% and it can be considered to be "production".

name Language native name ISO 639 formalism state stems coverage location primary authors
-2 -3
apertium-kaz Kazakh қазақ тілі kk kaz HFST (lexc+twol) production 36,595 ~94.5% apertium-kaz (languages) Ilnar, Jonathan, Fran, Aida, Beknazar, Nathan
apertium-tat Tatar татар теле tt tat HFST (lexc+twol) production 55,702 ~91% apertium-tat (languages) Ilnar, Fran, Jonathan, Röstäm
apertium-kir Kyrgyz кыргыз тили ky kir HFST (lexc+twol) working 14,424 ~90.4% apertium-kir (languages) Jonathan, Mirlan, Fran, Qantörö
apertium-tur Turkish Türk dili tr tur HFST (lexc+twol) working 17,221 ~87.3% apertium-tur (incubator) Fran, Gianluca, Jonathan
apertium-chv Chuvash чӑваш чӗлхи cv chv HFST (lexc+twol) development 10,267 ~85% apertium-chv (languages) Hèctor
apertium-kum Kumyk къумукъ тил - kum HFST (lexc+twol) development 4,918 ~90.2% apertium-kum (languages) Fran, Jonathan
apertium-kaa Karakalpak Qaraqalpaq tili - kaa HFST (lexc+twol) development 25,545 ~81.4% apertium-kaa (languages) Beknazar, Fran, Jonathan
apertium-uzb Uzbek o'zbek tili uz uzb HFST (lexc+twol) development 34,470 ~82.9% apertium-uzb (languages)
apertium-bak Bashkir башҡорт теле ba bak HFST (lexc+twol) development 2,827 ~66% apertium-bak (languages) Fran, Jonathan, Ilnar, Milli
apertium-nog Nogay Ногай тили - nog HFST (lexc+twol) development 1,385 ~81.4% apertium-nog (languages) Fran, Jonathan
apertium-tuk Turkmen Türkmençe tk tuk HFST (lexc+twol) development 2,988 ~70.7% apertium-tuk (languages) Fran
apertium-uig Uyghur ئۇيغۇر تىلى ug uig HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 17,585 ~54.2% apertium-uig (incubator) Jonathan, Märdan, Fran
apertium-crh Crimean Tatar Qırımtatar tili - crh HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 11,757 ~85.4% apertium-crh (incubator) Fran
apertium-sah Yakut Саха тыла - sah HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 11,531 ~89.6% apertium-sah (incubator) Fran
apertium-tyv Tuvan Тыва дыл - tyv HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 11,695 ~92.7% apertium-tyv (incubator) Fran
apertium-kjh Khakas Хакас тілі - kjh HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 293 ~39.3% apertium-kjh (incubator) Fran
apertium-aze Azerbaijani Azərbaycan dili az aze HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 11,120 apertium-aze (incubator) Gianluca

Turkic languages by subgroup


Some Turkic languages that are particularly similar to one another (and hence have high levels of mutual intelligibility) include those in the following list:

Chuvash is very distant from other Turkic languages and is not even partially mutually intelligible with any of them.

Table of existing pairs

See also: Turkic-Turkic translator

Text in italics denotes prototype language pairs in the incubator. Regular text denotes a developing language pair in nursery, while text in bold denotes a stable well-working language pair in trunk, and text in bold and italics denotes a pair in staging. Bidix stems as counted with dixcounter are displayed below.

tat -
bak tat-bak
chv chv-tat
kaz 'kaz-tat
kir tat-kir
rus tat-rus
tur tur-tat