Turkic languages

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The Turkic languages include Turkish, Azeri, Uzbek, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Chuvash, Turkmen, Bashkir, Sakha, and several dozen other languages. The languages are related with varying levels of mutual intelligibility. Our goal is to enhance MT coverage of them with apertium.

The ultimate master plan involves generating independent finite-state transducers for each language, and then making individual dictionaries and transfer rules for every pair. The current status of these goals is listed below.


Once a transducer has ~80% coverage on a range of corpora we can say it is "working". Over 90% and it can be considered to be "production".


name Language ISO 639 formalism state stems coverage location primary authors
-2 -3 corpus words %cov
trmorph Turkish tr tur SFST working 42,827 SETimes 4.1M ~88% Çağri
kymorph Kyrgyz ky kir HFST (lexc+twol) working 8,555 azattyk 2010 3.4M ~87% trunk/apertium-tr-ky Jonathan, Mirlan, Fran
bible 174K ~87.8%
turmorph Turkish tr tur HFST (lexc+twol) development 19,534 SETimes 4.1M ~85% Gianluca
kazmorph Kazakh kk kaz HFST (lexc+twol) development 9,306 Әуезов 155K 83.2 incubator/apertium-ky-kk Nathan, Jonathan, Fran
wp 2011-11 0.84M ~67%
Chuvash cv chv HFST (lexc+twol) development 88 88.8K ~30% incubator/apertium-cv-ru Hèctor
Tatar tt tat HFST (lexc+twol) development 518 87.7k ~15.03% -
Bashkir ba bak HFST (lexc+twol) development 518 45.9k ~15.40% -
azmorph Azerbaijani az aze SFST working? - trunk/apertium-tr-az Gianluca

Turkic-Turkic pairs

Text in italic denotes language pairs under development / in the incubator. Regular text denotes a functioning language pair in trunk, while text in bold denotes a stable well-working language pair.

tr az tk uz ky kk tt cv ba ug
tr tr-az tr-ky tr-cv
az az-tr
ky ky-tr ky-kk
kk kk-tt
tt tt-kk tt-ba
cv cv-tr

Pairs with non-Turkic languages

tr az tk uz ky kk tt cv ba ug
en tr-en ky-en
ru cv-ru
mn mn-kk


Rough guide to tagsets in various Turkic language transducers, with an eye to keeping stuff that is basically the same tagged the same. In the following table, A stands for Apertium and T stands for TRmorph.

Phenomenon Morphology Description Tag(s) Language(s) Notes
Part of speach
Noun <n>
Proper noun <np>
Determiner <det>
Numeral <num>
Adjective <adj>
Adverb <adv>
Pronoun <prn>
Verb <v>
Auxiliary verb <vaux>
Copula <cop>
Adverb <adv>
Postadverb <postadv>
Postposition <post>
Particle <part>
Coordinating conjunction <cnjcoo>
Subordinating conjunction <cnjsub>
Adverbial conjunction <cnjadv>
Abbreviation <abbr>
Interjection <ij>
Proper noun types
Toponym <top>
Anthroponym <ant>
Cognomen (Surname) <cog>
Acronym <acr>
Other <al>
Pronoun types
Personal <pers>
Ordinal <ord>
Demonstrative <dem>
Indefinite <ind>
Interrogative <itg>
Reflexive <ref>
Existential <exi>
Quantifier <qnt>
Positive <pst>
Negative <neg>
Comparative <comp>
Collective-numeral <coll>
Reciprocal <recip>
First person <p1>
Second person <p2>
Third person <p3>
Nominative case (unmarked) <nom>
Genitive case <gen>
Dative case <dat>
Locative case <loc>
Ablative case -DAn Case indicating movement away <abl> Pan-turkic
Instrumental case <ins>
Private case <priv>
Terminative case <term>
Final case <fin>
1st pers sg <px1sg>
1st pers pl <px1pl>
2nd pers sg <px2sg>
2nd pers pl <px2pl>
3rd pers sg <px3sg>
3rd pers pl <px3pl>
3rd pers sg or pl <px3sp>
Masculine <m>
Feminine <f>
Masculine / feminine <mf>
Singular <sg>
Plural <pl>
Tense, aspect, mood
Present tense <pres>
Present continuous tense <cont> Turkish: -{bI}yor
Evidential past tense <evid> Turkish: -m{I}ş
Past tense <past> Turkish: -{D}{I}
Definite past tense <ifi>
Imperfect <pii> Turkish: Aorist + -m{A}kt{A}
Past habitual tense <pih> Turkish: Aorist + -{D}{I}
Future tense <fut> Turkish: -{bY}{A}c{A}{k}
Imperative Mood for giving orders <imp>A, <t_imp>T Pan-turkic Turkish: -ø
Conditional <cond> Turkish: -s{A}
Aorist <aor> Turkish: -{A}r or -{bI}r
Optative <opt> Turkish: -{bY}{A}, Kirghiz: -мAк>чI
Obligative <oblig> Turkish: -m{A}l{I}
Potential <pot> Kirghiz: -чUдAй
Not-yet tense <notyet> Kirghiz: -E элек
Gerund #1 <ger1> Turkish: -m{A}
Gerund #2 <ger2> Turkish: -m{A}{K}
Gerund #3 <ger3> Turkish: -{D}{I}{k}
Gerund #4 <ger4> Turkish: -{bY}{I}ş
Gerund #5 <ger5> Turkish: -{bY}{A}n
Gerund #6 <ger6> Turkish: -{bY}{A}r{A}k
Gerund #7 <fger> Turkish: -{bY}{I}p
Future gerund #1 <ger1> Turkish: -{bY}{A}c{A}{k}
Imperfect participle #1 <fger> Turkish: -{bY}{A}r{A}{k}
Passive <pass>
Causative <caus>
Cooperative <coop>
Transitive <tv>
Intransitive <iv>