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Santali or Santhali is the most widely spoken language of the Munda subfamily of the Austroasiatic languages, related to Ho and Mundari, spoken mainly in the Indian states of Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Mizoram, Odisha, Tripura and West Bengal. It is a recognized regional language of India per the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. It is spoken by around 7.6 million people in India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal, making it the third most-spoken Austroasiatic language after Vietnamese and Khmer. Santali was a mainly oral language until the development of Ol Chiki by Pandit Raghunath Murmu in 1925. Ol Chiki is an alphabetic script, sharing none of the syllabic properties of the other Indic scripts, and is now widely used to write Santali language in India. Before the invention of Ol Chiki script Santali language was used to be written in Roman/latin, Devanagari and Kalinga script.



  • Neukom, L. (2000). Argument marking in Santali. MonKhmer Studies, 95-114.
  • Marandi, C., & Maringanti, H. B. Santali Morphological Analysis. Prof.(Dr.) HIMA BINDU MARINGANTI, 52. pg. no: 74
  • Akhtar, M. A. K., Kumar, M., & Sahoo, G. (2017, September). Automata for santali language processing. In 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI) (pp. 939-943). IEEE.
  • Sahoo, S. K., Mishra, B. K., Parida, S., Dash, S. R., Besra, J. N., & Tello, E. V. Automatic Dialect Detection for Low Resource Santali Language.
  • Dash, S., Sunil Sahoo, Brojo Kishore Mishra, Shantipriya Parida, Jatindra Nath Besra, & Atul Kr. Ojha. (2021). Universal Dependency Treebank for Santali Language. SPAST Abstracts, 1(01). Retrieved from
  • Basua, J., Hrangkhawlb, T. R., Basuc, T. K., & Majumderd, S. (2021, June). Identification of two tribal languages of India: An experimental study. In Artificial Intelligence and Speech Technology: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Speech Technology,(AIST2020), 19-20 November, 2020, Delhi, India (p. 221). CRC Press.



  • Campbell, Andrew. A Santali-English Dictionary. Santal mission press, 1899.
  • Campbell, A., & MACPHAIL, R. M. (1933). A Santali-English and English-Santali Dictionary... Edited by RM Macphail. Santal Mission Press.
  • Bodding, P. O. 1932–1936. A Santali dictionary (5 volumes).
  • Bhaduri, Manindra Bhusan. A Mundari-English Dictionary. Asian Educational Services, 1994.
  • Hansdah, R. C., and N. C. Murmu. "A Concise Santali-English Dictionary." (2003).

Other closly related Language Dicitionary

  • Ho Dictionary - Deeney, J. J. (1978). Ho-English dictionary. Xavier Ho Publications.

Also See