Prerequisites for Debian
This page shows how to install the standard dependencies of apertium (and related packages) on Debian / Ubuntu / Mint / other Debian-based operating systems.
Install the apertium dependencies like this:
sudo apt-get install subversion build-essential pkg-config gawk libxml2 \ libxml2-dev libxml2-utils xsltproc flex automake libtool libpcre3-dev
Once you've installed these packages, continue to Minimal installation from SVN.
(Note: it is possible to install apertium and some language pairs using apt-get, but the versions there are often out of date. It is not recommended if you want to do development.)