Mandarin Chinese

From Apertium
Revision as of 17:42, 14 December 2015 by Darkgaia (talk | contribs)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Mandarin Chinese (Wikipedia:Mandarin Chinese) is a Sino-Tibetan language (Wikipedia:Sino-Tibetan languages). Currently there is no stable language pair in Apertium involving Mandarin Chinese (see list of language pairs).

'Chinese' is a broad term consisting of hundreds of local language varieties (dialects), including Hokkien, Gan, Hakka, Cantonese, etc. Mandarin Chinese in this case refers to the most commonly spoken form of Chinese that is the sole official language of China and Taiwan. It is also known as Putonghua or Standard Chinese (Wikipedia:Standard Chinese). Speakers of Chinese are estimated to be more than 1 billion (the highest total number of speakers in the world!).

In the Machine Translation context, one does not need to be too concerned with the various dialects, as their vocabulary and copula are mostly similar; differing mainly in phonology, tonal and spoken idiolects, and rarely, grammar usage. Furthermore, by specifying that Standard 'Putonghua' Chinese is the main focus of translation, any hassle with regard to Chinese dialects can be done away with entirely. However, what is significant about the Chinese language are the differences between "Traditional" and "Simplified" Chinese; the characters are different for 'Traditional' (used in Taiwan and Hong Kong) and 'Simplified' (used in Mainland China, Singapore, and Malaysia). Many online machine translators are able to convert between these characters easily.


Machine translation


  • Chao, Yuen Ren. (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN: 0-520-00219-9. {ALEX PL1137.S6C5 1968}
  • Claudia Ross and Jing-heng Sheng Ma. (2006). Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar. New York: Routledge.
  • He, Wayne W., Dela Jiao and Christopher M. Livaccari. (2010). Structures of Mandarin Chinese for Speakers of English I. Peking University Press, Paper. ISBN: 978-7-301-17971-0.
  • Huang, C. -T. James, Y. -H. Audrey Li, and Yafei Li. (2009). The Syntax of Chinese. Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 0521590582.
  • Kratochvil, P. The Chinese Language Today. {ALEX PL1087.K7}
  • Li, Charles N. & Sandra A. Thompson. (1981). Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN: 0-520-04286-7. {ALEX PL1107.L5}
  • Li Dejin and Cheng Meizhen. (2009). A Practical Chinese Grammar for Foreigners. Revised Edition. Beijing Language and Culture University Press, Paper. ISBN: 978-7-561-92163-0.
  • Lu, Fubo. (1996). 卢福波著. 《对外汉语教学实用语法》. Beijing Languages and Culture University Press, Paper. ISBN 978-7-5619-0474-9.
  • Yip Po-Ching and Don Rimmington. (1997). Chinese: An Essential Grammar. New York: Routledge. {Paul Robeson (Camden) PL1107.Y57 1996}
  • Yue, Anne O. (2003). Chinese dialects: grammar, in Thurgood, Graham; LaPolla, Randy J. (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, Routledge, pp. 84–125, ISBN 978-0-7007-1129-1.
  • Chinese Grammar Wiki All Set Learning
  • [6] Chinese Grammar (Wikipedia)


  • Dai, John Xiangling. (1992). Chinese morphology and its interface with the syntax. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus.
  • Duanmu, San. (1998). “Wordhood in Chinese”. New approaches to Chinese word formation: Morphology, phonology and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese.
  • Feng, Shengli. (1998). Prosodic structure and compound words in classical Chinese. In New approaches to Chinese word formation: morphology, phonology and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese.
  • Lu, Zhi-wei. (1965). Hànyǔ de goùcí fǎ (Chinese morphology). Peking: Kēxué Publishing Co.
  • Matthews, Peter Hugoe. (1991). Morphology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Packard, Jerome Lee. (2000). The Morphology of Chinese: A Linguistic and Cognitive Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Tang, Ting-chi. (1989). Hànyǔ cífǎ jùfǎ lùjí (Studies on Chinese morphology and syntax). Taipei: Taiwan Xīnxuéshēng Book Co.
  • Zhu, Jia-ning. (1999). Hànyǔ cíhuì xué (Chinese morphology). Taipei: Wǔnán Túshū Publishing Co.
  • Chinese Morphology: An Exploratory Study of Second Language Learners’ Acquisition of Compounds National Chengchi University, Taiwan
  • Morphology Chinese 101 101 Languages


  • Lin, Y. (1972). Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  • Simon, W. (1975). A Beginners' Chinese-English Dictionary Of The National Language (Gwoyeu): Fourth Revised Edition, Lund Humphries, (London).
  • [7] Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, English-Chinese (traditional)
  • [8] English-Chinese Online Dictionary - TigerNT
  • [9] MDBG English to Chinese dictionary
  • [10] Multilingual Chinese Dictionary


  • Bradley, David. (1992). "Chinese as a pluricentric language". In Clyne, Michael G. Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in Different Nations. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 305–324. ISBN 978-3-11-012855-0.
  • Chao, Yuen-ren. (1948). Mandarin Primer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Chen, Ping. (1999). Modern Chinese: History and sociolinguistics, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-64572-0.
  • Chen, Yeh-ning, Shu-mei Wang, and Tsui-yin Lu. (2001). Practical Audio-Visual Chinese. Taipei: Zhèngzhūng Book Co.
  • Coblin, W. South. (2000). "A brief history of Mandarin", Journal of the American Oriental Society 120 (4): 537–552, JSTOR 606615.
  • Duanmu, San. (1999). Stress and the development of disyllabic vocabulary in Chinese. Diachronica XVI: 1.1-35.
  • Duanmu, San. (2007). The phonology of standard Chinese (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-921579-9.
  • Escure, Geneviève. (1997). Creole and dialect continua: standard acquisition processes in Belize and China (PRC), John Benjamins, ISBN 978-90-272-5240-1.
  • Hsia, T. (1956). China's Language Reforms, Far Eastern Publications, Yale University, (New Haven).
  • Kaske, Elisabeth. (2008). The politics of language in Chinese education, 1895–1919, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-16367-6.
  • Kratochvil, Paul. (1968). The Chinese Language Today: Features of an Emerging Standard. London: Hutchinson.
  • Kurpaska, Maria. (2010). Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects", Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2.
  • Lehmann, W.P. (ed.). (1975). Language & Linguistics in the People's Republic of China, University of Texas Press, (Austin).
  • Milsky, C., (January–March 1973). "New Developments in Language Reform", The China Quarterly, No.53, pp. 98–133.
  • Pollock, Jean-Yves. (1989). Verb movement, Universal Grammar, and the structure of IP. Linguistic Inquiry 20:365-424.
  • Qiu, Xigui. (2000). Chinese Writing, trans. Gilbert Louis Mattos and Jerry Norman, Society for the Study of Early China and Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, ISBN 978-1-55729-071-7.
  • Schuessler, Axel. (2007). ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2975-9.
  • Selkirk, Elisabeth. (1982). The syntax of words. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Seybolt, P.J. & Chiang, G.K. (eds.). (1979). Language Reform in China: Documents and Commentary, M.E. Sharpe, (White Plains), ISBN 978-0-87332-081-8.
  • Zhang, Bennan; Yang, Robin R. (2004). "Putonghua education and language policy in postcolonial Hong Kong", in Zhou, Minglang (ed.), Language policy in the People's Republic of China: theory and practice since 1949, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 143–161, ISBN 978-1-4020-8038-8.
  • American Oriental Society
  • Chinese Language and Gender On-line Bibliography
  • Chinese Language website
  • Classical Chinese texts Chinese Text Project
  • East Asia and Southeast Asia: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources.
  • European Association of Chinese Linguistics
  • International Association of Chinese Linguistics
  • Language borrowing Why so little Chinese in English? The Economist. June 6, 2013.
  • Mandarin Chinese children's story in simplified Chinese showing the stroke order for every character
  • Marjorie Chan's ChinaLinks at the Ohio State University with hundreds of links to Chinese related web pages
  • North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics
  • The Authentic Way to Study Mandarin Chinese
  • Standard Chinese (Wikipedia, English)
  • 官話 (Wikipedia, Classical Chinese)
  • 华语 (Wikipedia, Simplified Chinese)
  • World Chinese Language Association