Mandarin Chinese

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Mandarin Chinese (Wikipedia:Mandarin Chinese) is a Sino-Tibetan language(Wikipedia:Sino-Tibetan languages). Currently there is no stable language pair in Apertium involving Mandarin Chinese (see list of language pairs).


  • Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Mandarin Chinese". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  • —— (1991), "What Is a Chinese "Dialect/Topolect"? Reflections on Some Key Sino-English Linguistic terms", Sino-Platonic Papers 29: 1–31
  • Norman, Jerry (1988), Chinese, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29653-3.
  • Ramsey, S. Robert (1987), The Languages of China, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-01468-5.
  • Wurm, Stephen Adolphe; Li, Rong; Baumann, Theo; Lee, Mei W. (1987), Language Atlas of China, Longman, ISBN 978-962-359-085-3.
  • Yan, Margaret Mian (2006), Introduction to Chinese Dialectology, LINCOM Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-629-6.
  • Packard, Jerome Lee. 1998. New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation: Morphology, Phonology and the Lexicon in Modern and Ancient Chinese. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Machine translation

  • [1] Libtabe (SourceForge)
  • [2] Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, English-Chinese (traditional)
  • [3] MDBG English to Chinese dictionary
  • [4] Multilingual Chinese Dictionary


  • Chinese Grammar Wiki All Set Learning
  • [5] Chinese Grammar (Wikipedia)
  • Yue, Anne O. (2003), Chinese dialects: grammar, in Thurgood, Graham; LaPolla, Randy J. (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, Routledge, pp. 84–125, ISBN 978-0-7007-1129-1.
  • Li Dejin and Cheng Meizhen. A Practical Chinese Grammar for Foreigners. Revised Edition. Beijing Language and Culture University Press, 2009. Paper. ISBN: 978-7-561-92163-0
  • Chao, Yuen Ren. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968. ISBN: 0-520-00219-9. {ALEX PL1137.S6C5 1968}
  • Claudia Ross and Jing-heng Sheng Ma. Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar. New York: Routledge, 2006.
  • Huang, C. -T. James, Y. -H. Audrey Li, and Yafei Li. The Syntax of Chinese. Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN: 0521590582
  • Kratochvil, P. The Chinese Language Today. {ALEX PL1087.K7}
  • He, Wayne W., Dela Jiao and Christopher M. Livaccari. Structures of Mandarin Chinese for Speakers of English I. Peking University Press, 2010. Paper. ISBN: 978-7-301-17971-0
  • Li, Charles N. & Sandra A. Thompson. Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981. ISBN: 0-520-04286-7 {ALEX PL1107.L5}
  • Lu, Fubo 卢福波著. 《对外汉语教学实用语法》. Beijing Languages and Culture University Press, 1996. Paper. ISBN 978-7-5619-0474-9
  • Yip Po-Ching and Don Rimmington. Chinese: An Essential Grammar. New York: Routledge, 1997. {Paul Robeson (Camden) PL1107.Y57 1996}


  • Packard, Jerome Lee. 2000. The Morphology of Chinese: A Linguistic and Cognitive Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Morphology Chinese 101 101 Languages
  • Chinese Morphology: An Exploratory Study of Second Language Learners’ Acquisition of Compounds National Chengchi University, Taiwan
  • Dai, John Xiangling. 1992. Chinese morphology and its interface with the syntax. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus
  • Duanmu, San. 1998. “Wordhood in Chinese”. New approaches to Chinese word formation: Morphology, phonology and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese
  • Feng, Shengli. 1998. Prosodic structure and compound words in classical Chinese. In New approaches to Chinese word formation: morphology, phonology and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese
  • Lu, Zhi-wei. 1965. Hànyǔ de goùcí fǎ (Chinese morphology). Peking: Kēxué Publishing Co.
  • Matthews, Peter Hugoe. 1991. Morphology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Tang, Ting-chi. 1989. Hànyǔ cífǎ jùfǎ lùjí (Studies on Chinese morphology and syntax). Taipei: Taiwan Xīnxuéshēng Book Co.
  • Zhu, Jia-ning. 1999. Hànyǔ cíhuì xué (Chinese morphology). Taipei: Wǔnán Túshū Publishing Co


  • [7] English-Chinese Online Dictionary - TigerNT
  • [8] Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, English-Chinese (traditional)
  • [9] MDBG English to Chinese dictionary
  • [10] Multilingual Chinese Dictionary
  • Lin, Y., Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1972.
  • Simon, W., A Beginners' Chinese-English Dictionary Of The National Language (Gwoyeu): Fourth Revised Edition, Lund Humphries, (London), 1975.


  • Duanmu, San. 1999. Stress and the development of disyllabic vocabulary in Chinese. Diachronica XVI: 1.1-35.
  • Pollock, Jean-Yves. 1989. Verb movement, Universal Grammar, and the structure of IP. Linguistic Inquiry 20:365-424.
  • Coblin, W. South (2000), "A brief history of Mandarin", Journal of the American Oriental Society 120 (4): 537–552, JSTOR 606615.
  • Selkirk, Elisabeth. 1982. The syntax of words. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Standard Chinese (Wikipedia, English)
  • 官話 (Wikipedia, Classical Chinese)
  • 华语 (Wikipedia, Simplified Chinese)
  • Escure, Geneviève (1997), Creole and dialect continua: standard acquisition processes in Belize and China (PRC), John Benjamins, ISBN 978-90-272-5240-1.
  • Kaske, Elisabeth (2008), The politics of language in Chinese education, 1895–1919, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-16367-6.
  • Kurpaska, Maria (2010), Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects", Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2.
  • Zhang, Bennan; Yang, Robin R. (2004), "Putonghua education and language policy in postcolonial Hong Kong", in Zhou, Minglang (ed.), Language policy in the People's Republic of China: theory and practice since 1949, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 143–161, ISBN 978-1-4020-8038-8.
  • Chao, Yuen-ren. 1948. Mandarin Primer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
  • Chen, Yeh-ning, Shu-mei Wang, and Tsui-yin Lu. 2001. Practical Audio-Visual Chinese. Taipei: Zhèngzhūng Book Co
  • Kratochvil, Paul. 1968. The Chinese Language Today: Features of an Emerging Standard. London: Hutchinson.
  • Chen, Ping (1999), Modern Chinese: History and sociolinguistics, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-64572-0.
  • Duanmu, San (2007), The phonology of standard Chinese (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-921579-9.
  • Bradley, David (1992). "Chinese as a pluricentric language". In Clyne, Michael G. Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in Different Nations. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 305–324. ISBN 978-3-11-012855-0.
  • Hsia, T., China's Language Reforms, Far Eastern Publications, Yale University, (New Haven), 1956.
  • Lehmann, W.P. (ed.), Language & Linguistics in the People's Republic of China, University of Texas Press, (Austin), 1975.
  • Seybolt, P.J. & Chiang, G.K. (eds.), Language Reform in China: Documents and Commentary, M.E. Sharpe, (White Plains), 1979. ISBN 978-0-87332-081-8.
  • Milsky, C., "New Developments in Language Reform", The China Quarterly, No.53, (January–March 1973), pp. 98–133.
  • Chinese Language website
  • The Authentic Way to Study Mandarin Chinese
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  • Greek Helsinki Human Rights Organisation: Aromanians (Vlachs) in Greece
  • Conjugation of verbs in Aromanian and Istro-Romanian
  • Romanian and the Balkans, with some references to Aromanian
  • Consiliul A Tinirlor Armanj - CTARM , webpage about Youth Aromanians and their projects
  • Armans Association from Serbia
  • Armans Cultural Association from Romania