Mandarin Chinese

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Mandarin Chinese (Wikipedia:Mandarin Chinese) is a Sino-Tibetan language(Wikipedia:Sino-Tibetan languages). Currently there is no stable language pair in Apertium involving Mandarin Chinese (see list of language pairs).


  • Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Mandarin Chinese". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  • —— (1991), "What Is a Chinese "Dialect/Topolect"? Reflections on Some Key Sino-English Linguistic terms", Sino-Platonic Papers 29: 1–31
  • Norman, Jerry (1988), Chinese, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29653-3.
  • Ramsey, S. Robert (1987), The Languages of China, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-01468-5.
  • Wurm, Stephen Adolphe; Li, Rong; Baumann, Theo; Lee, Mei W. (1987), Language Atlas of China, Longman, ISBN 978-962-359-085-3.
  • Yan, Margaret Mian (2006), Introduction to Chinese Dialectology, LINCOM Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-629-6.

Machine translation

  • [1] Libtabe (SourceForge)
  • [2] Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, English-Chinese (traditional)
  • [3] MDBG English to Chinese dictionary


  • Chinese Grammar Wiki All Set Learning
  • [4] Chinese Grammar (Wikipedia)
  • Yue, Anne O. (2003), "Chinese dialects: grammar", in Thurgood, Graham; LaPolla, Randy J. (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, Routledge, pp. 84–125, ISBN 978-0-7007-1129-1.
  • Li Dejin and Cheng Meizhen. A Practical Chinese Grammar for Foreigners. Revised Edition. Beijing Language and Culture University Press, 2009. Paper. ISBN: 978-7-561-92163-0
  • Chao, Yuen Ren. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968. ISBN: 0-520-00219-9. {ALEX PL1137.S6C5 1968}
  • Claudia Ross and Jing-heng Sheng Ma. Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar. New York: Routledge, 2006.
  • Huang, C. -T. James, Y. -H. Audrey Li, and Yafei Li. The Syntax of Chinese. Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN: 0521590582
  • Kratochvil, P. The Chinese Language Today. {ALEX PL1087.K7}
  • He, Wayne W., Dela Jiao and Christopher M. Livaccari. Structures of Mandarin Chinese for Speakers of English I. Peking University Press, 2010. Paper. ISBN: 978-7-301-17971-0
  • Li, Charles N. & Sandra A. Thompson. Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981. ISBN: 0-520-04286-7 {ALEX PL1107.L5}
  • Lu, Fubo 卢福波著. 《对外汉语教学实用语法》. Beijing Languages and Culture University Press, 1996. Paper. ISBN 978-7-5619-0474-9
  • Yip Po-Ching and Don Rimmington. Chinese: An Essential Grammar. New York: Routledge, 1997. {Paul Robeson (Camden) PL1107.Y57 1996}


Language Learners’ Acquisition of Compounds] National Chengchi University, Taiwan

  • Dai, John Xiangling. 1992. Chinese morphology and its interface with the syntax. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus
  • Duanmu, San. 1998. “Wordhood in Chinese”. New approaches to Chinese word formation: Morphology, phonology and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese
  • Feng, Shengli. 1998. Prosodic structure and compound words in classical Chinese. In New approaches to Chinese word formation: morphology, phonology and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese


  • [6] English-Chinese Online Dictionary - TigerNT
  • [7] Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, English-Chinese (traditional)
  • [8] MDBG English to Chinese dictionary