Maltese and Hebrew
Maltese and Hebrew
check out with:
svn co https://apertium.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/apertium/incubator/apertium-mt-he
- Add closed categories to the Maltese analyser (pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, numerals)
- Add closed categories to the bidix
- Add closed categories to the Hebrew dictionary
- Generate Hebrew verb entries from hspell output in Apertium format
- Add existing verbs to the bidix
- Add high frequency nouns, adjectives, adverbs to Maltese analyser
- Align Maltese and Hebrew bibles
- Add attached articles to all noun entries -- not 100% sure how this works, see for ex.
<e lm="הולדת"><par n="ה"/><i>הולדת</i><par n="עת__n_f"/></e>
No infinitive. Stem is third person singular, masculine perfect tense.
Second verb infinitive does not exist, instead both verbs are conjugated. "I want to eat" = "I want I eat"
A verbal stem can consist of:
- Three consonants (radicals) with the medial radical between one of six vowel combinations. (Triliteral)
- Four consonants, some having two repeated biradical bases. (Quadriliteral)
- Two consonants, or a consonant and a semivowel
In verbs with 'għ' or a + 'j' as the third radical, only have the first two radicals in the stem word which ends in 'a' (open syllable).
- Verbs that have three non-semivocalic consonants are called sound or strong verbs.
- Verbs that have three radicals, with the last radical being 'għ' or 'j' are called defective or weak verbs.
- Triliteral verbs with long 'a' or 'ie' between 1st and 2nd radicals are called hollow verbs.
- Triliteral verbs with where the second and third radicals are the same are called doubled or geminated verbs.
|Sound (Tri)||ħareġ||ħ·r·ġ||2. a·e||he went out|
|Sound (Quad)||ħarbex||ħ·rb·x||2. a·e||he scribbled|
|Defective||qata'||q·t·għ||1. a·a||he cut|
|Weak||mexa||m·x·j||4. e·a||he walked|
|Hollow||qal||q·w·l||1. a·a||he said|
|Hollow||sab||s·j·b||1. a·a||he found|
|Doubled||habb||h·b·b||1. a·a||he loved|
- Perfect: Action in the past
- seraq "he robbed"
- Imperfect: Action in the present/future
- jisraq "he steals" or "he will steal"
- Imperative: Order/command
- israq (sg), isirqu (pl) "steal!"
- Present participle: Only from intransitive verbs, and some verbs of motion. Has both verbal/adjectival function. Has m/f/pl
- nieżel (m.sg) "descending"
- nieżla (f.sg) "descending"
- neżlin (mf.pl) "descending"
- Past participle: Has both verbal/adjectival function. Has m/f/pl
- misruq (m.sg) "stolen"
- misruqa (f.sg) "stolen"
- misruqin (mf.pl) "stolen"
- Verbal noun
- serq "robbing", "theft"
Pronouns, prepositions etc. can be dropped in favor of complex suffixes added to the verb;
iktbilha = ikteb + il + ha
write(imp,p2,sg) + to + her
See The Verb with Pronominal Suffixes for through documentation.
Resources on verbs
- Maltese Grammar
- Maltese verbs on Wiktionary
- Maltese conjugation tables on Wiktionary
- Maltese verbs on Verbix
- The verbal morphology of Maltese, Robert D. Hoberman and Mark Aronoﬀ
- GF Summer School: Progress in Maltese
- Dana Dannélls, John J. Camilleri 2010. Verb Morphology of Hebrew and Maltese - Towards an Open Source Type Theoretical Resource Grammar in GF