Maltese and Hebrew
Maltese and Hebrew
check out with:
svn co https://apertium.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/apertium/incubator/apertium-mt-he
- Make program to generate a full form list for a given Maltese verb stem
- Align Maltese and Hebrew bibles
- Add closed categories to the Maltese analyser (pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, numerals)
- Add nouns,adjectives,adverbs to the Maltese analyser
No infinitive. Stem is third person singular, masculine perfect tense.
Second verb infinitive does not exist, instead both verbs are conjugated. "I want to eat" = "I want I eat"
A verbal stem can consist of:
- Three consonants (radicals) with the medial radical between one of six vowel combinations. (Triliteral)
- Four consonants, some having two repeated biradical bases. (Quadriliteral)
- Two consonants, or a consonant and a semivowel
In verbs with 'għ' or a + 'j' as the third radical, only have the first two radicals in the stem word which ends in 'a' (open syllable).
- Verbs that have three non-semivocalic consonants are called sound or strong verbs.
- Verbs that have three radicals, with the last radical being 'għ' or 'j' are called defective or weak verbs.
- Triliteral verbs with long 'a' or 'ie' between 1st and 2nd radicals are called hollow verbs.
- Triliteral verbs with where the second and third radicals are the same are called doubled or geminated verbs.
|Sound (Tri)||ħareġ||ħ·r·ġ||2. a·e||he went out|
|Sound (Quad)||ħarbex||ħ·rb·x||2. a·e||he scribbled|
|Defective||qata'||q·t·għ||1. a·a||he cut|
|Weak||mexa||m·x·j||4. e·a||he walked|
|Hollow||qal||q·w·l||1. a·a||he said|
|Hollow||sab||s·j·b||1. a·a||he found|
|Doubled||habb||h·b·b||1. a·a||he loved|
- Perfect: Action in the past
- seraq "he robbed"
- Imperfect: Action in the present/future
- jisraq "he steals" or "he will steal"
- Imperative: Order/command
- israq (sg), isirqu (pl) "steal!"
- Present participle: Only from intransitive verbs, and some verbs of motion. Has both verbal/adjectival function. Has m/f/pl
- nieżel (m.sg) "descending"
- nieżla (f.sg) "descending"
- neżlin (mf.pl) "descending"
- Past participle: Has both verbal/adjectival function. Has m/f/pl
- misruq (m.sg) "stolen"
- misruqa (f.sg) "stolen"
- misruqin (mf.pl) "stolen"
- Verbal noun
- serq "robbing", "theft"
Resources on verbs
- Maltese Grammar
- Maltese verbs on Wiktionary
- Maltese conjugation tables on Wiktionary
- Maltese verbs on Verbix
- The verbal morphology of Maltese, Robert D. Hoberman and Mark Aronoﬀ
- GF Summer School: Progress in Maltese