Difference between revisions of "List of symbols"

From Apertium
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(→‎Number: adding 'col')
Line 105: Line 105:
| <code>du</code> || Dual ||
| <code>du</code> || Dual ||
| <code>col</code> || Collective ||
| <code>sp</code> || Singular , plural ||
| <code>sp</code> || Singular , plural ||

Revision as of 17:25, 12 July 2011

Eventually this will be a glossary of symbol names in alphabetical order with notes. Some of these names are specific to particular packages or language pairs, as not all languages have the same grammatical features (most don't have spatial distinction in articles for example).

If you were wondering what the symbols #, /, @, +, ~ or * mean, read Apertium stream format.

Part-of-speech Categories

Symbol Gloss Notes
n Noun see 'np' for proper noun
vblex Standard verb see also: vbser, vbhaver, vbmod, vaux
vbmod Modal verb
vbser Verb "to be" from ser (to be)
vbhaver Verb "to have" from haver (to have)
vaux Auxilliary verb wikipedia
adj Adjective
adv Adverb
preadv Pre-adverb
det Determiner wikipedia
prn Pronoun wikipedia
pr Preposition wikipedia
num Numeral
np Proper noun From nom propi wikipedia
ij Interjection wikipedia
cnjcoo Co-ordinating conjunction wikipedia
cnjsub Sub-ordinating conjunction
cnjadv Conjunctive adverb wikipedia
sent Sentence-ending punctuation e.g. full stop, question mark

Part-of-speech Sub-categories


Symbol Gloss Notes
f Feminine
m Masculine
nt Neuter
ma Masculine (animate) Mostly in Slavic languages
mi Masculine (inanimate) Mostly in Slavic languages
mp Masculine (personal) in Polish
mn Masculine and Neuter
fn Feminine and Neuter
ut Common From utrum, found in Scandinavian languages.
mf Masculine , feminine This is used where the gender can be either masculine or feminine
un Common, neuter As above, only common or neuter
GD Gender to be determined


Symbol Gloss Notes
cnt Countable
unc Uncountable (mass)


Symbol Gloss Notes
sg Singular
pl Plural
du Dual
col Collective
sp Singular , plural
ND Number to be determined


Symbol Gloss Notes
nom Nominative
acc Accusative
dat Dative
gen Genitive
dg Dative and Genitive
voc Vocative
ins Instrumental wikipedia
loc Locative wikipedia
abl Ablative wikipedia
cpr Prepositional wikipedia

Tense and mode

Symbol Gloss Notes
pres Present
past Past
imp Imperative
inf Infinitive
pp Past participle wikipedia
pp2 Past participle (???) It's at least used in the Esperanto dictionaries for future active participles, ont (seems quite odd)
pp3 Past participle (???) It's at least used in the Esperanto dictionaries for past active participles, int (seems quite odd)
pprs Present participle Also appears as ppres (deprecated)
ger Gerund wikipedia
pri Present indicative see also: pres. wikipedia
pii Imperfect from Pretério imperfecto de indicativo
fti Future indicative
fts Future subjunctive
cni Conditional
plu Pluperfect In cy-en
pmp Pluperfect In es-gl (from Pluscamperfecto)
prs Present subjunctive wikipedia
pis Imperfect subjunctive
ifi Past definite from Pretério perfecto o indefinido
aff Affirmative
itg Interrogative
neg Negative


Symbol Gloss Notes
caus Causative

Proper nouns

Symbol Gloss Notes
ant Anthroponym wikipedia
top Toponym In some language pairs without the locative case this may be loc. Although this should be changed. wikipedia
hyd Hydronym wikipedia
cog Cognomen In normal use, surnames
org Organisation
al Altres Other, misc.


Symbol Gloss Notes
p1 First person
p2 Second person
p3 Third person
impers Impersonal Sometimes called 'autonomous'


Symbol Gloss Notes
aa Animate
an Animate / inanimate
nn Inanimate


Symbol Gloss Notes
sint Synthetic "nice, nicer, nicest" is synthetic. "handsome, more handsome, the most handsome" is not. wikipedia
pst Positive
comp Comparative wikipedia
sup Superlative wikipedia
attr Attributive wikipedia
pred Predicative wikipedia
Symbol Gloss Notes
tn Tonico
detnt Neuter determiner
predet Pre determiner
qnt Quantifier
ord Ordinal
obj Object
subj Subject
pro Proclitic
enc Enclitic
acr Acronym
rel Relative
ind Indefinite
itg Interrogative
dem Demonstrative
def Definite
pos Possesive
ref Reflexive
prx Proximate
dst Distal
pprep Post preposition (in Slavic languages, for pronoun changes: 'ich' -> 'nich')

XML tags

Note: All XML tags are explained in depth in the PDF documentation, see also the dix.dtd/dix.rng files in lttoolbox (svn).

XML tag Means Appears in XML tags / notes / examples
<dictionary> Mono- or bilingual dictionary In files apertium-eo-en.en.dix, apertium-eo-en.eo-en.dix, apertium-eo-en.post-en.dix, apertium-eo-en.post-eo.dix
<alphabet> Set of characters in the language In <dictionary>
<sdefs> Symbol definitions In <dictionary>
<sdef> Symbol definition In <sdefs>. Ex: <sdef n="noun"/>
<pardefs> Paradigm definitions In <dictionary>.
<pardef> Paradigm definition In <pardefs>.
<section> A section of the dictionary In <dictionary>. Ex: <section id="main" type="standard">
<e> A dictionary entry (a word) In <section> and in <pardef>.
<i> Invariant (left and right side) In <e>. Ex.: <i>beer</i>
<p> A pair In <e>.
<l> Left side (surface form) In <p>. Ex.: <l>beer</l>
<r> Right side (lexical unit) In <p>. Ex.: <r>beer<s n="noun"/><s n="singular"/></r>
<s> A lexical symbol (noun, adj..) In <r>, <l> and <i>. Ex.: <s n="noun"/>
<a> Post-generator wake-up mark In <r>, <l> and <i>. Ex.: <l><a/>a<s ... (for the a/an rule in English)
<b> Blank space In <r>, <l> and <i>. Ex.: <l>you're<b/>welcome<s ...

TODO: Probably there are more. --Jacob Nordfalk 14:47, 25 August 2008 (UTC)

Other tags:

<j/> (in stream format #) is to mark multiwords

<t/> and <v/> are only in crossdix
t = template, v = variable
t matches any single tag, v is like + in regexes (0 or more)

<sa/> and <prm/> are only used in metadixes.
'sa' lets you add n optional extra tag, prm is an extra string for the paradigm


<clip> tag

See the documentation (pdf), p.144 for more information.

XML attribute value Means Appears in attribute Notes
whole lemma and grammatical symbols part
lem lemma part
lemh (inflected) head word of multiword part
lemq following queue of multiword part

See also