Difference between revisions of "List of symbols"

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[[Liste de symboles|En français]] · [[Список символов|по-русски]]
 
[[Liste de symboles|En français]] · [[Список символов|по-русски]]
  +
 
This page lists the symbols in Apertium used to denote part-of-speech and further morphological features, as well as chunk tags used for more syntactic functions, as well as XML tags.
 
This page lists the symbols in Apertium used to denote part-of-speech and further morphological features, as well as chunk tags used for more syntactic functions, as well as XML tags.
  +
  +
This page also documents alignment between Apertium morphological tags and [https://universaldependencies.org/ Universal Dependencies] [https://universaldependencies.org/u/pos/index.html POS tags] and [https://universaldependencies.org/u/feat/index.html features].
   
   
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If you were wondering what the symbols #, /, @, +, ~ or * mean, read [[Apertium stream format]].
 
If you were wondering what the symbols #, /, @, +, ~ or * mean, read [[Apertium stream format]].
   
  +
<!-- comments following section headers are intended to make scraping this page easier -->
==Part-of-speech Categories==
 
  +
  +
==Part-of-speech Categories== <!-- POS -->
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal POS
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>n</code> || Noun || ''see 'np' for proper noun''
+
| <code>n</code> || Noun || ''see 'np' for proper noun'' || NOUN
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>vblex</code> || Standard ("lexical") verb || ''see also: vbser, vbhaver, vbmod, vaux''
+
| <code>vblex</code> || Standard ("lexical") verb || ''see also: vbser, vbhaver, vbmod, vaux, vbdo'' || VERB
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>v</code> || Standard verb || shortened form of vblex, often used in agglutinative languages
+
| <code>v</code> || Standard verb || shortened form of vblex, often used in agglutinative languages || VERB
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>vbmod</code> || Modal verb ||
+
| <code>vbmod</code> || Modal verb || || VERB
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>vbser</code> || Verb "to be" || from ''ser'' (to be)
+
| <code>vbser</code> || Verb "to be" || from ''ser'' (to be) || VERB (or AUX)
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>vbhaver</code> || Verb "to have" || from ''haver'' (to have)
+
| <code>vbhaver</code> || Verb "to have" || from ''haver'' (to have) || VERB (or AUX)
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>vaux</code> || Auxiliary verb || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auxilliary_verb wikipedia]
+
| <code>vbdo</code> || Verb "to do" || "to do" includes all eleven tenses and forms of to do, can also be an auxiliary verb || VERB (or AUX)
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>cop</code> || Copula || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copula_(linguistics) wikipedia]; sometimes verb-like, sometimes not
+
| <code>vaux</code> || Auxiliary verb || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auxilliary_verb wikipedia] || AUX
  +
|-
  +
| <code>cop</code> || Copula || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copula_(linguistics) wikipedia]; sometimes verb-like, sometimes not || AUX, ...
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>adj</code> || Adjective ||
+
| <code>adj</code> || Adjective || || ADJ
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>post</code> || Postposition ||
+
| <code>adv</code> || Adverb || || ADV
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>adv</code> || Adverb ||
+
| <code>preadv</code> || Pre-adverb || || ADV
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>preadv</code> || Pre-adverb ||
+
| <code>postadv</code> || Post-adverb || || ADV
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>postadv</code> || Post-adverb ||
+
| <code>mod</code> || Modal word || [http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/lingvistic/749] || PART
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>mod</code> || Modal word || [http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/lingvistic/749]
+
| <code>det</code> || Determiner || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Determiner_(class) wikipedia] || DET
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>det</code> || Determiner || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Determiner_(class) wikipedia]
+
| <code>prn</code> || Pronoun || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronoun wikipedia] || PRON
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>prn</code> || Pronoun || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronoun wikipedia]
+
| <code>pr</code> || Preposition || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preposition wikipedia] || ADP
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pr</code> || Preposition || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preposition wikipedia]
+
| <code>post</code> || Postposition || || ADP
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>num</code> || Numeral ||
+
| <code>num</code> || Numeral || || NUM
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>np</code> || Proper noun || From ''nom propi'' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proper_noun wikipedia]
+
| <code>np</code> || Proper noun || From ''nom propi'' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proper_noun wikipedia] || PROPN
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ij</code> || Interjection || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interjection wikipedia]
+
| <code>ij</code> || Interjection || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interjection wikipedia] || INTJ
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>cnjcoo</code> || Co-ordinating conjunction || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Co-ordinating_conjunction wikipedia]
+
| <code>cnjcoo</code> || Co-ordinating conjunction || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Co-ordinating_conjunction wikipedia] || CCONJ
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>cnjsub</code> || Sub-ordinating conjunction ||
+
| <code>cnjsub</code> || Sub-ordinating conjunction || || SCONJ
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>cnjadv</code> || Conjunctive adverb || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjunctive_adverb wikipedia]
+
| <code>cnjadv</code> || Conjunctive adverb || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjunctive_adverb wikipedia] || SCONJ, ADV
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>sent</code> || Sentence-ending punctuation || e.g. full stop, question mark
+
| <code>atp</code> || Attachable prefix || In [[German]], ''zusammen''- ||
  +
|}
  +
  +
=== Punctuation === <!-- punct -->
  +
  +
{|class=wikitable
  +
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal POS
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>cm</code> || Comma punctuation || ,
+
| <code>sent</code> || Sentence-ending punctuation || e.g. full stop, question mark || PUNCT
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>lquot</code> || Left quote || «
+
| <code>cm</code> || Comma punctuation || , || PUNCT PunctType=Comm
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>rquot</code> || Right quote || »
+
| <code>lquot</code> || Left quote || « || PUNCT PunctType=Quot PunctSide=Ini
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>lpar</code> || Left parenthesis || (
+
| <code>rquot</code> || Right quote || » || PUNCT PunctType=Quot PunctSide=Fin
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>rpar</code> || Right parenthesis || )
+
| <code>lpar</code> || Left parenthesis || ( || PUNCT PunctType=Brck PunctSide=Ini
|-
+
|-
  +
| <code>rpar</code> || Right parenthesis || ) || PUNCT PunctType=Brck PunctSide=Fin
  +
|-
  +
| <code>guio</code> || Hyphen || - used to connect two words into one e.g. year-long|| PUNCT PunctType=Dash
  +
|-
  +
| <code>apos</code> || Apostrophe || ' or ' || PUNCT
  +
|-
  +
| <code>quot</code> || Quotation || " || PUNCT PunctType=Quot
  +
|-
  +
| <code>percent</code> || Percentage || % || PUNCT
  +
|-
  +
| <code>lquest</code> || Left question/exclamation mark || ¿¡ (''used in Spanish'') || PUNCT PunctSide=Ini
  +
|-
  +
| <code>clb</code> || Clause Boundary || Refers to any of the following symbols: .?;:!·… || PUNCT
  +
|-
  +
| <code>punct</code> || Punctuation || || PUNCT
 
|}
 
|}
   
==Part-of-speech Sub-categories==
+
==Part-of-speech Sub-categories== <!-- subtype -->
   
===Gender===
+
===Gender=== <!-- gender -->
   
 
These tags are usually used with nouns, and things that agree/concord with nouns (like adjectives and verbs).
 
These tags are usually used with nouns, and things that agree/concord with nouns (like adjectives and verbs).
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal features
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>f</code> || Feminine ||
+
| <code>f</code> || Feminine || || Gender=Fem
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>m</code> || Masculine ||
+
| <code>m</code> || Masculine || || Gender=Masc
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>nt</code> || Neuter ||
+
| <code>nt</code> || Neuter || || Gender=Neut
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ma</code> || Masculine (animate) || Mostly in Slavic languages
+
| <code>ma</code> || Masculine (animate) || Mostly in Slavic languages || Gender=Masc
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>mi</code> || Masculine (inanimate) || Mostly in Slavic languages
+
| <code>mi</code> || Masculine (inanimate) || Mostly in Slavic languages || Gender=Masc
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>mp</code> || Masculine (personal) || in Polish
+
| <code>mp</code> || Masculine (personal) || in Polish || Gender=Masc
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>mn</code> || Masculine or neuter ||
+
| <code>mn</code> || Masculine or neuter || || Gender=Masc,Neut
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>fn</code> || Feminine or neuter ||
+
| <code>fn</code> || Feminine or neuter || || Gender=Fem,Neut
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>mf</code> || Masculine or feminine || This is used where the gender can be either masculine or feminine
+
| <code>mf</code> || Masculine or feminine || Used when masculine and feminine have the same form || Gender=Masc,Fem
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>mfn</code> || Masculine , feminine , neuter || This is used where the gender can be either masculine, feminine or neuter
+
| <code>mfn</code> || Masculine , feminine , neuter || Used when masculine, feminine, and neuter have the same form || Gender=Masc,Fem,Neut
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ut</code> || Common || From ''utrum'', found in Scandinavian languages.
+
| <code>ut</code> || Common || From ''utrum'', found in Scandinavian languages. || Gender=Com
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>un</code> || Common or neuter || As above, only common or neuter
+
| <code>un</code> || Common or neuter || As above, only common or neuter || Gender=Com,Neut
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>GD</code> || Gender to be determined ||
 
| <code>GD</code> || Gender to be determined ||
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|}
 
|}
   
===Count/Mass===
+
===Count/Mass=== <!-- countability -->
   
 
These tags are usually used with nouns, and things that agree/concord with nouns (like adjectives and verbs).
 
These tags are usually used with nouns, and things that agree/concord with nouns (like adjectives and verbs).
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>cnt</code> || Countable ||
 
| <code>cnt</code> || Countable ||
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|}
 
|}
   
===Animacy===
+
===Animacy=== <!-- animacy -->
   
 
These tags are usually used with nouns, and things that agree/concord with nouns (like adjectives and verbs).
 
These tags are usually used with nouns, and things that agree/concord with nouns (like adjectives and verbs).
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>aa</code> || Animate ||
+
| <code>aa</code> || Animate || || Animacy=Anim
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>an</code> || Animate or inanimate ||
+
| <code>an</code> || Animate or inanimate || || Animacy=Anim,Inan
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>nn</code> || Inanimate ||
+
| <code>nn</code> || Inanimate || || Animacy=Inan
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| <code>hu</code> || Human || || Animacy=Hum
 
|}
 
|}
   
===Adjectives===
+
===Adjectives=== <!-- adj_type -->
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>sint</code> || Synthetic || "nice, nicer, nicest" is synthetic. "handsome, more handsome, the most handsome" is not. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic_language wikipedia]
 
| <code>sint</code> || Synthetic || "nice, nicer, nicest" is synthetic. "handsome, more handsome, the most handsome" is not. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic_language wikipedia]
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|}
 
|}
   
===Pronoun types ===
+
===Pronoun types === <!-- prn_type -->
   
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pers</code> || Personal ||
+
| <code>pers</code> || Personal || || PronType=Prs
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>tn</code> || Tónico ||
 
| <code>tn</code> || Tónico ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>detnt</code> || Neuter determiner || POS?
+
| <code>detnt</code> || Neuter determiner || POS? || DET
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>predet</code> || Pre determiner || POS?
+
| <code>predet</code> || Pre determiner || POS? || DET
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>atn</code> || Atónico ||
 
| <code>atn</code> || Atónico ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>qnt</code> || Quantifier ||
+
| <code>qnt</code> || Quantifier || || PronType=Ind
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ord</code> || Ordinal ||
+
| <code>ord</code> || Ordinal || || NumType=Ord
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>obj</code> || Object ||
 
| <code>obj</code> || Object ||
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| <code>enc</code> || Enclitic ||
 
| <code>enc</code> || Enclitic ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>acr</code> || Acronym || Not Pronuon?
+
| <code>acr</code> || Acronym || Not Pronuon? || Abbr=Yes
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>rel</code> || Relative ||
+
| <code>rel</code> || Relative || || PronType=Rel
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ind</code> || Indefinite ||
+
| <code>ind</code> || Indefinite || || PronType=Ind
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>itg</code> || Interrogative ||
+
| <code>itg</code> || Interrogative || || PronType=Int
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>dem</code> || Demonstrative ||
+
| <code>dem</code> || Demonstrative || || PronType=Dem
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>def</code> || Definite ||
 
| <code>def</code> || Definite ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pos</code> || Possessive ||
+
| <code>pos</code> || Possessive || || Poss=Yes
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ref</code> || Reflexive ||
+
| <code>ref</code> || Reflexive || || Reflex=Yes
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>prx</code> || Proximate ||
 
| <code>prx</code> || Proximate ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>dst</code> || Distal ||
 
| <code>dst</code> || Distal ||
  +
|-
  +
| <code>expl</code> || Syntactic expletive || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntactic_expletive wikipedia] ||
  +
|-
  +
| <code>rec</code> || Reciprocal Pronoun ||
  +
|-
  +
| <code>res</code> || Reciprocal Pronoun ||
 
|}
 
|}
   
=== Transitivity ===
+
=== Transitivity === <!-- transitivity -->
   
 
Used for verbs.
 
Used for verbs.
   
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>tv</code> || Transitive || takes direct object in accusative case (used in Turkic)
+
| <code>tv</code> || Transitive || takes direct object in accusative case (used in Turkic) || Subcat=Tran
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>iv</code> || Intransitive || does not take direct object in accusative case (used in Turkic)
+
| <code>iv</code> || Intransitive || does not take direct object in accusative case (used in Turkic) || Subcat=Intr
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>TD</code> || Transitivity to be determined || if the sub-category is [currently] unknown
+
| <code>TD</code> || Transitivity to be determined || if the sub-category is [currently] unknown
 
|}
 
|}
   
  +
===Separable verbs=== <!-- separable -->
== Inflectional morphology ==
 
   
  +
{|class=wikitable
===Number===
 
  +
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
  +
|-
  +
| <code>sep</code> || Separable verb || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separable_verb wikipedia], [https://deutsch.lingolia.com/en/grammar/verbs/separable-verbs lingolia], [https://aclweb.org/anthology/P98-1078.pdf PDF]
  +
|-
  +
| <code>fs</code> || Separable verb in subordinate clause ||
  +
|-
  +
| <code>fm</code> || Separable verb in main clause ||
  +
|-
  +
|}
  +
  +
===Proper nouns=== <!-- np_type -->
  +
  +
{|class=wikitable
  +
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal features
  +
|-
  +
| <code>ant</code> || Anthroponym || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthroponym wikipedia], it's very common to use ant together with f and m for traditionally gender-specific names
  +
|-
  +
| <code>top</code> || Toponym || In some language pairs without the locative case this may be ''loc''. Although this should be changed. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toponym wikipedia]
  +
|-
  +
| <code>hyd</code> || Hydronym || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydronym wikipedia]
  +
|-
  +
| <code>cog</code> || Cognomen || In normal use, surnames
  +
|-
  +
| <code>org</code> || Organisation ||
  +
|-
  +
| <code>al</code> || Altres || Other, misc.
  +
|-
  +
| <code>pat</code> ||Patronymic || A name derived from the name of a father or ancestor, e.g. Johnson, O'Brien, Ivanovich.
  +
|}
  +
  +
== Inflectional morphology == <!-- infl -->
  +
  +
===Number=== <!-- number -->
 
Note: number can be a sub-category tag too, e.g. with pronouns.
 
Note: number can be a sub-category tag too, e.g. with pronouns.
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>sg</code> || Singular ||
+
| <code>sg</code> || Singular || || Number=Sing
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pl</code> || Plural ||
+
| <code>pl</code> || Plural || || Number=Plur
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>sp</code> || Singular or plural ||
+
| <code>sp</code> || Singular or plural || || Number=Sing,Plur
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>du</code> || Dual ||
+
| <code>du</code> || Dual || || Number=Dual
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ct</code> || Count || see mk-bg
+
| <code>ct</code> || Count || see mk-bg || Number=Count
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>coll</code> || Collective ||
+
| <code>coll</code> || Collective || || Number=Coll
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>ND</code> || Number to be determined ||
 
| <code>ND</code> || Number to be determined ||
Line 238: Line 306:
   
   
===Case===
+
===Case=== <!-- case -->
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>nom</code> || Nominative ||
+
| <code>nom</code> || Nominative || || Case=Nom
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>acc</code> || Accusative ||
+
| <code>acc</code> || Accusative || || Case=Acc
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>dat</code> || Dative ||
+
| <code>dat</code> || Dative || || Case=Dat
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>gen</code> || Genitive ||
+
| <code>gen</code> || Genitive || || Case=Gen
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>dg</code> || Dative and Genitive || in [[ro-es]], discouraged in new developments
+
| <code>dg</code> || Dative and Genitive || in [[ro-es]], discouraged in new developments || Case=Dat,Gen
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>voc</code> || Vocative ||
+
| <code>voc</code> || Vocative || || Case=Voc
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>abl</code> || Ablative || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ablative wikipedia]
+
| <code>abl</code> || Ablative || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ablative wikipedia] || Case=Abl
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ins</code> || Instrumental or Instructive || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_case wikipedia]
+
| <code>ins</code> || Instrumental or Instructive || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_case wikipedia] || Case=Ins
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>loc</code> || Locative || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locative wikipedia]
+
| <code>loc</code> || Locative || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locative wikipedia] || Case=Loc
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>prp</code> || Prepositional || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prepositional wikipedia]
+
| <code>prp</code> || Prepositional || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prepositional wikipedia]
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>tra</code> || Translative ||
+
| <code>tra</code> || Translative || || Case=Tra
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ill</code> || Illative ||
+
| <code>ill</code> || Illative || || Case=Ill
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ine</code> || Inessive ||
+
| <code>ine</code> || Inessive || || Case=Ine
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ade</code> || Adessive ||
+
| <code>ade</code> || Adessive || || Case=Ade
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>all</code> || Allative ||
+
| <code>all</code> || Allative || || Case=All
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>abe</code> || Abessive ||
+
| <code>abe</code> || Abessive || || Case=Abe
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ess</code> || Essive ||
+
| <code>ess</code> || Essive || || Case=Ess
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>par</code> || Partitive ||
+
| <code>par</code> || Partitive || || Case=Par
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>dis</code> || Distributive ||
+
| <code>dis</code> || Distributive || || Case=Dis
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>com</code> || Comitative ||
+
| <code>com</code> || Comitative || || Case=Com
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>soc</code> || Sociative ||
+
| <code>soc</code> || Sociative || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>prl</code> || Prolative ||
+
| <code>prl</code> || Prolative || || Case=Pro
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ses</code> || Superessive || [[Hungarian]] ||
+
| <code>ses</code> || Superessive || [[Hungarian]] || Case=Sup
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>sub</code> || Sublative || [[Hungarian]] ||
+
| <code>sub</code> || Sublative || [[Hungarian]] || Case=Sub
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>dela</code> || Delative || [[Hungarian]] ||
+
| <code>dela</code> || Delative || [[Hungarian]] || Case=Del
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>term</code> || Terminative || [[Hungarian]], Estonian, ... ||
+
| <code>term</code> || Terminative || [[Hungarian]], Estonian, ... || Case=Ter
  +
|-
  +
| <code>temp</code> || Temporal || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temporal_case] || Case=Tem
  +
|-
  +
| <code>obl</code> || Oblique || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oblique_case] || Case=Obl
  +
|-
  +
| <code>erg</code> || Ergative || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_case] || Case=Erg
 
|}
 
|}
   
===Voice===
+
===Voice=== <!-- voice -->
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>actv</code> || Active voice ||
+
| <code>actv</code> || Active voice || || Voice=Act
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pass</code> || Passive voice || is more used in Turkic.
+
| <code>pass</code> || Passive voice || is more used in Turkic. || Voice=Pass
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pasv</code> || Passive voice || is more used in Germanic.
+
| <code>pasv</code> || Passive voice || is more used in Germanic. || Voice=PAss
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>midv</code> || Middle voice ||
+
| <code>midv</code> || Middle voice || || Voice=Mid
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>nactv</code> || Non-active voice || See Albanian.
+
| <code>nactv</code> || Non-active voice || See Albanian. ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>caus</code> || Causative voice || see also [[#Derivations]]
+
| <code>caus</code> || Causative voice || see also [[#Derivations]] || Voice=Cau
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
   
===Tense and mode===
+
===Tense and mode=== <!-- tense -->
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal features
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pres</code> || Present ||
+
| <code>aff</code> || Affirmative || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affirmation_and_negation wikipedia] || Polarity=Pos
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pret</code> || Preterite || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preterite Preterite]
+
| <code>aor</code> || Aorist || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aorist wikipedia] A tense in Turkic languages. || Tense=Past
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>past</code> || Past ||
+
| <code>cni</code> || Conditional || Lot of pairs will probably use cnd or cond... || Mood=Cnd
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>imp</code> || Imperative || [http://www.englishlanguageguide.com/grammar/imperative.asp englishlanguageguide]
+
| <code>deb</code> || Debitive mode || Exclusive to Latvian ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debitive wikipedia]) ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>inf</code> || Infinitive || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infinitive wikipedia]
+
| <code>fti</code> || Future indicative || || Tense=Fut Mood=Ind
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>aor</code> || Aorist || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aorist wikipedia] A tense in Turkic languages.
+
| <code>fts</code> || Future subjunctive || || Tense=Fut Mood=Sub
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pp</code> || Past participle || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Participle wikipedia]
+
| <code>fut</code> || Future || || Tense=Fut
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pp2</code> || Past participle (???) || It's at least used in the Esperanto dictionaries for future active participles, ''ont'' (seems quite odd)
+
| <code>ger</code> || Gerund || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerund wikipedia] || VerbForm=Ger
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pp3</code> || Past participle (???) || It's at least used in the Esperanto dictionaries for past active participles, ''int'' (seems quite odd)
+
| <code>ifi</code> || Past definite || from ''Pretério perfecto o indefinido'' || Tense=Past Definite=Def
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pprs</code> || Present participle || Also appears as <code>ppres</code> (deprecated)
+
| <code>imp</code> || Imperative || [http://www.englishlanguageguide.com/grammar/imperative.asp englishlanguageguide] || Mood=Imp
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ger</code> || Gerund || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerund wikipedia]
+
| <code>inf</code> || Infinitive || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infinitive wikipedia] || VerbForm=Inf
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>supn</code> || Supine || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supine wikipedia]
+
| <code>infps</code> || Personal infinitive || Used in Portuguese ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pri</code> || Present indicative || ''see also: pres''. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Present_indicative wikipedia]
+
| <code>itg</code> || Interrogative || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pii</code> || Imperfect || from ''Pretério imperfecto de indicativo'' [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperfect wikipedia]
+
| <code>ito</code> || Infinitive with 'to' || [[German]] || VerbForm=Inf
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>fti</code> || Future indicative ||
+
| <code>lp</code> || L-participle ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>fts</code> || Future subjunctive ||
+
| <code>neg</code> || Negative || || Polarity=Neg
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>cni</code> || Conditional || Lot of pairs will probably use cnd or cond...
+
| <code>nonpast</code> || Non-past || || Tense=Pres,Fut
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>plu</code> || Pluperfect || In <code>cy-en</code>
+
| <code>past</code> || Past || || Tense=Past
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pmp</code> || Pluperfect || In <code>es-gl</code> (from ''Pluscamperfecto'')
+
| <code>pii</code> || Imperfect || from ''Pretério imperfecto de indicativo'' [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperfect wikipedia] || Tense=Past Mood=Ind
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>prs</code> || Present subjunctive || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Present_subjunctive wikipedia]
+
| <code>pis</code> || Imperfect subjunctive || || Tense=Past Mood=Sub
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pis</code> || Imperfect subjunctive ||
+
| <code>plu</code> || Pluperfect || In <code>cy-en</code> || Tense=Pqp
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ifi</code> || Past definite || from ''Pretério perfecto o indefinido''
+
| <code>pmp</code> || Pluperfect || In <code>es-gl</code> (from ''Pluscamperfecto'') || Tense=Pqp
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| <code>pp2</code> || Past participle (???) || It's at least used in the Esperanto dictionaries for future active participles, ''ont'' (seems quite odd) ||
| <code>aff</code> || Affirmative || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affirmation_and_negation wikipedia]
 
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>itg</code> || Interrogative ||
+
| <code>pp3</code> || Past participle (???) || It's at least used in the Esperanto dictionaries for past active participles, ''int'' (seems quite odd) ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>neg</code> || Negative ||
+
| <code>pp</code> || Past participle || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Participle wikipedia] || VerbForm=Part
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>lp</code> || L-participle ||
+
| <code>pprs</code> || Present participle || Also appears as <code>ppres</code> (deprecated) || VerbForm=Part
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| <code>pprs</code> || Present participle || ''see also: pprs''. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Present_participle wikipedia] || Tense=Pres Mood=Part
  +
|-
  +
| <code>pres</code> || Present || || Tense=Pres
  +
|-
  +
| <code>pret</code> || Preterite || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preterite Preterite] || Tense=Past
  +
|-
  +
| <code>pri</code> || Present indicative || ''see also: pres''. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Present_indicative wikipedia] || Tense=Pres Mood=Ind
  +
|-
  +
| <code>prs</code> || Present subjunctive || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Present_subjunctive wikipedia] || Tense=Pres Mood=Sub
  +
|-
  +
| <code>supn</code> || Supine || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supine wikipedia] || VerbForm=Sup
  +
|}
  +
  +
===Aspect=== <!-- aspect -->
  +
{|class=wikitable
  +
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
  +
|-
  +
| <code>hab</code> || Habitual || || Aspect=Hab
  +
|-
  +
| <code>imperf</code> || Imperfective || || Aspect=Imp
  +
|-
  +
| <code>impf</code> || Imperfective || || Aspect=Imp
  +
|-
  +
| <code>perf</code> || Perfective || || Aspect=Perf
 
|}
 
|}
   
===Person===
+
===Person=== <!-- person -->
 
Note: person can be a sub-category tag, e.g. with pronouns.
 
Note: person can be a sub-category tag, e.g. with pronouns.
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>p1</code> || First person ||
+
| <code>p1</code> || First person || || Person=1
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>p2</code> || Second person ||
+
| <code>p2</code> || Second person || || Person=2
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>p3</code> || Third person ||
+
| <code>p3</code> || Third person || || Person=3
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>impers</code> || Impersonal || Sometimes called 'autonomous'
+
| <code>impers</code> || Impersonal || Sometimes called 'autonomous' || Person=0
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| <code>past3p</code> || past third person ||
 
|}
 
|}
   
===Derivations===
+
===Derivations=== <!-- verb_deriv -->
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
 
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
 
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
Line 397: Line 496:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>ingr</code> || Ingressive || https://nn.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ingressiv
 
| <code>ingr</code> || Ingressive || https://nn.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ingressiv
  +
|-
  +
| <code>subs</code> || Verbal Noun or Verbal Substantive || Shorten form of ''substantive''. Noun formed from a verb
  +
|-
  +
| <code>agnt</code> || Agent noun || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agent_noun Agent Noun]
  +
|-
 
|}
 
|}
   
===Possession===
+
===Possession=== <!-- possessor -->
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>px1sg</code> || First person singular possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]]
+
| <code>px1sg</code> || First person singular possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]] || Person[psor]=1 Number[psor]=Sing
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>px2sg</code> || Second person singular possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]]
+
| <code>px2sg</code> || Second person singular possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]] || Person[psor]=2 Number[psor]=Sing
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>px3sg</code> || Third person singular possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]]
+
| <code>px3sg</code> || Third person singular possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]] || Person[psor]=3 Number[psor]=Sing
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>px1pl</code> || First person plural possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]]
+
| <code>px1pl</code> || First person plural possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]] || Person[psor]=1 Number[psor]=Plur
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>px2pl</code> || Second person plural possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]]
+
| <code>px2pl</code> || Second person plural possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]] || Person[psor]=2 Number[psor]=Plur
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>px3pl</code> || Third person plural possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]]
+
| <code>px3pl</code> || Third person plural possessive || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]] || Person[psor]=3 Number[psor]=Plur
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>px3sp</code> || Third person possessive singular or plural || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]]
+
| <code>px3sp</code> || Third person possessive singular or plural || e.g. in [[Turkic languages]] || Person[psor]=3
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
   
===Object marking===
+
===Subject marking=== <!-- subject -->
  +
  +
e.g. in verbs with both, otherwise, see [[#Person]] and [[#Number]].
  +
  +
{|class=wikitable
  +
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal features
  +
|-
  +
| <code>s_sg1</code> || First person singular object || || Number=Sing Person=1
  +
|-
  +
| <code>s_sg2</code> || Second person singular object || || Number=Sing Person=2
  +
|-
  +
| <code>s_sg3</code> || Third person singular object || || Number=Sing Person=3
  +
|-
  +
| <code>s_pl1</code> || First person plural object || || Number=Plur Person=1
  +
|-
  +
| <code>s_pl2</code> || Second person plural object || || Number=Plur Person=2
  +
|-
  +
| <code>s_pl3</code> || Third person plural object || || Number=Plur Person=3
  +
|-
  +
|}
  +
  +
  +
===Object marking=== <!-- object -->
   
 
e.g. in verbs with both
 
e.g. in verbs with both
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal features
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>o_sg1</code> || First person singular object ||
 
| <code>o_sg1</code> || First person singular object ||
Line 440: Line 566:
 
|}
 
|}
   
  +
===Adjectives=== <!-- adj_infl -->
===Proper nouns===
 
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal features
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>ant</code> || Anthroponym || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthroponym wikipedia]
+
| <code>pst</code> || Positive || || Degree=Pos
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>top</code> || Toponym || In some language pairs without the locative case this may be ''loc''. Although this should be changed. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toponym wikipedia]
+
| <code>comp</code> || Comparative || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective#Attributive.2C_predicative.2C_absolute.2C_and_substantive_adjectives wikipedia] || Degree=Comp
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>hyd</code> || Hydronym || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydronym wikipedia]
+
| <code>sup</code> || Superlative || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective#Attributive.2C_predicative.2C_absolute.2C_and_substantive_adjectives wikipedia] || Degree=Sup
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>cog</code> || Cognomen || In normal use, surnames
+
| <code>attr</code> || Attributive || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective#Attributive.2C_predicative.2C_absolute.2C_and_substantive_adjectives wikipedia] ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>org</code> || Organisation ||
+
| <code>pred</code> || Predicative || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective#Attributive.2C_predicative.2C_absolute.2C_and_substantive_adjectives wikipedia] ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>al</code> || Altres || Other, misc.
+
|-<code>short</code> || Short adjective ||
 
|}
 
|}
   
  +
===Others=== <!-- other -->
 
===Adjectives===
 
 
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
 
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
 
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pst</code> || Positive ||
+
| <code>abbr</code> || Abbreviation (e.g. ''etc., Mr.'') || Acronyms are also included (see <code>acr</code>)
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>comp</code> || Comparative || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective#Attributive.2C_predicative.2C_absolute.2C_and_substantive_adjectives wikipedia]
+
| <code>date</code> || Dates, years... ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>sup</code> || Superlative || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective#Attributive.2C_predicative.2C_absolute.2C_and_substantive_adjectives wikipedia]
+
| <code>email</code> || Electronic Mail || Shorten form of Electronic Mail
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>attr</code> || Attributive || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective#Attributive.2C_predicative.2C_absolute.2C_and_substantive_adjectives wikipedia]
+
| <code>file</code> || Filenames ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>pred</code> || Predicative || [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective#Attributive.2C_predicative.2C_absolute.2C_and_substantive_adjectives wikipedia]
+
| <code>mon</code> || Money ||
  +
|-
  +
| <code>percent</code> || Percentage || e.g. 25%, 0.9%
  +
|-
  +
| <code>time</code> || Time ||
  +
|-
  +
| <code>web</code> || Links and Emails ||
  +
|-
  +
|<code>maj</code> || Large script in which every letter is the same height ||
  +
|-
  +
|<code>min</code> || small script in which every letter is the same height ||
 
|}
 
|}
   
  +
=== Compounds === <!-- compound -->
   
===Others===
 
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes
+
! Symbol !! Gloss !! Notes !! Universal feature
|-
 
| <code>web</code> || Links and Emails ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| <code>cmp</code> || Compound Noun ||
 
|}
 
|}
   
 
===See also===
 
===See also===
 
* [[Turkic lexicon|Guidelines for tag assignment (etc.) in Turkic]]
 
* [[Turkic lexicon|Guidelines for tag assignment (etc.) in Turkic]]
  +
* [[Tagging guidelines for Portuguese]]
   
==Chunk tags==
+
==Chunk tags== <!-- chunk -->
   
 
{|class=wikitable
 
{|class=wikitable
Line 500: Line 634:
 
|}
 
|}
   
==XML tags==
+
==XML tags== <!-- xml -->
 
Note: All XML tags are explained in depth in the PDF [[documentation]], see also the [https://github.com/apertium/lttoolbox/blob/master/lttoolbox/dix.dtd dix.dtd] and [https://github.com/apertium/lttoolbox/blob/master/lttoolbox/dix.rng dix.rng] files in the GitHub repository.
 
Note: All XML tags are explained in depth in the PDF [[documentation]], see also the [https://github.com/apertium/lttoolbox/blob/master/lttoolbox/dix.dtd dix.dtd] and [https://github.com/apertium/lttoolbox/blob/master/lttoolbox/dix.rng dix.rng] files in the GitHub repository.
   
Line 506: Line 640:
 
! XML tag !! Means !! Appears in XML tags / notes / examples
 
! XML tag !! Means !! Appears in XML tags / notes / examples
 
|-
 
|-
| <code><dictionary></code> || Mono- or bilingual dictionary || In files apertium-eo-en.en.dix, apertium-eo-en.eo-en.dix, apertium-eo-en.post-en.dix, apertium-eo-en.post-eo.dix
+
| <code><dictionary></code> || Mono- or bilingual dictionary || Toplevel tag for all dictionaries
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code><alphabet></code> || Set of characters in the language|| In <code><dictionary></code>
 
| <code><alphabet></code> || Set of characters in the language|| In <code><dictionary></code>
Line 536: Line 670:
 
| <code>&lt;b></code> || Blank space || In <code>&lt;r></code>, <code>&lt;l></code> and <code>&lt;i></code>. Ex.: <code>&lt;l>you're&lt;b/>welcome&lt;s ...</code>
 
| <code>&lt;b></code> || Blank space || In <code>&lt;r></code>, <code>&lt;l></code> and <code>&lt;i></code>. Ex.: <code>&lt;l>you're&lt;b/>welcome&lt;s ...</code>
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| <code>&lt;g></code> || Group || For [[Chunking:_A_full_example#Handling_of_multiwords_with_inner_inflection|multiwords]]
  +
|-
  +
| <code>&lt;ig></code> || Identity group || Combination of <code>&lt;i></code> and <code>&lt;g></code>
  +
|-
  +
| <code>&lt;j></code> || Join || A <code>+</code> symbol in compounds. In [[Apertium-separable]], <code>&lt;j></code> indicates end-of-word
  +
|-
  +
| <code>&lt;prm></code> || Parameter || Only in [[Metadix]]
  +
|-
  +
| <code>&lt;sa></code> || Symbol Argument ??? || Only in [[Metadix]]
  +
|-
  +
| <code>&lt;t></code> || Tag or Template || In [[Apertium-separable]] <code>&lt;t></code> is any tag, in crossdix it is template (matches a single tag)
  +
|-
  +
| <code>&lt;v></code> || Variable || Only in crossdix - like + in regexes
 
|}
 
|}
 
TODO: Probably there are more. --[[User:Jacob Nordfalk|Jacob Nordfalk]] 14:47, 25 August 2008 (UTC)
 
 
Other tags:
 
<pre>
 
<j/> (in stream format #) is to mark multiwords
 
 
<t/> and <v/> are only in crossdix
 
t = template, v = variable
 
t matches any single tag, v is like + in regexes (0 or more)
 
 
<sa/> and <prm/> are only used in metadixes.
 
'sa' lets you add n optional extra tag, prm is an extra string for the paradigm
 
</pre>
 
   
 
=== Transfer ===
 
=== Transfer ===
   
==== <clip> tag ====
+
==== <clip> tag ==== <!-- clip -->
   
 
See the [https://wiki.apertium.org/w/images/d/d0/Apertium2-documentation.pdf documentation (pdf)], p.144 for more information.
 
See the [https://wiki.apertium.org/w/images/d/d0/Apertium2-documentation.pdf documentation (pdf)], p.144 for more information.
Line 573: Line 706:
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
* [[Syntax tags]]
 
* [[Syntax tags]]
  +
* [[Secondary tags]]
 
* [[Apertium stream format]]
 
* [[Apertium stream format]]
 
* [[User:Adverick#FreeMind_Apertium_PoS|FreeMind Apertium PoS]]
 
* [[User:Adverick#FreeMind_Apertium_PoS|FreeMind Apertium PoS]]

Latest revision as of 18:08, 19 June 2020

En français · по-русски

This page lists the symbols in Apertium used to denote part-of-speech and further morphological features, as well as chunk tags used for more syntactic functions, as well as XML tags.

This page also documents alignment between Apertium morphological tags and Universal Dependencies POS tags and features.


This is meant to be a glossary of symbol names in alphabetical order with notes. Some of these names are specific to particular packages or language pairs, as not all languages have the same grammatical features (most don't have spatial distinction in articles for example).

If you were wondering what the symbols #, /, @, +, ~ or * mean, read Apertium stream format.


Part-of-speech Categories[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal POS
n Noun see 'np' for proper noun NOUN
vblex Standard ("lexical") verb see also: vbser, vbhaver, vbmod, vaux, vbdo VERB
v Standard verb shortened form of vblex, often used in agglutinative languages VERB
vbmod Modal verb VERB
vbser Verb "to be" from ser (to be) VERB (or AUX)
vbhaver Verb "to have" from haver (to have)  VERB (or AUX)
vbdo Verb "to do" "to do" includes all eleven tenses and forms of to do, can also be an auxiliary verb  VERB (or AUX)
vaux Auxiliary verb wikipedia  AUX
cop Copula wikipedia; sometimes verb-like, sometimes not  AUX, ...
adj Adjective  ADJ
adv Adverb  ADV
preadv Pre-adverb  ADV
postadv Post-adverb  ADV
mod Modal word [1] PART
det Determiner wikipedia  DET
prn Pronoun wikipedia  PRON
pr Preposition wikipedia ADP
post Postposition ADP
num Numeral NUM
np Proper noun From nom propi wikipedia  PROPN
ij Interjection wikipedia INTJ
cnjcoo Co-ordinating conjunction wikipedia CCONJ
cnjsub Sub-ordinating conjunction SCONJ
cnjadv Conjunctive adverb wikipedia  SCONJ, ADV
atp Attachable prefix In German, zusammen-

Punctuation[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal POS
sent Sentence-ending punctuation e.g. full stop, question mark PUNCT
cm Comma punctuation ,  PUNCT PunctType=Comm
lquot Left quote « PUNCT PunctType=Quot PunctSide=Ini
rquot Right quote » PUNCT PunctType=Quot PunctSide=Fin
lpar Left parenthesis (  PUNCT PunctType=Brck PunctSide=Ini
rpar Right parenthesis )  PUNCT PunctType=Brck PunctSide=Fin
guio Hyphen - used to connect two words into one e.g. year-long  PUNCT PunctType=Dash
apos Apostrophe ' or '  PUNCT
quot Quotation "  PUNCT PunctType=Quot
percent Percentage %  PUNCT
lquest Left question/exclamation mark ¿¡ (used in Spanish) PUNCT PunctSide=Ini
clb Clause Boundary Refers to any of the following symbols: .?;:!·… PUNCT
punct Punctuation PUNCT

Part-of-speech Sub-categories[edit]

Gender[edit]

These tags are usually used with nouns, and things that agree/concord with nouns (like adjectives and verbs).

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal features
f Feminine Gender=Fem
m Masculine Gender=Masc
nt Neuter Gender=Neut
ma Masculine (animate) Mostly in Slavic languages Gender=Masc
mi Masculine (inanimate) Mostly in Slavic languages Gender=Masc
mp Masculine (personal) in Polish Gender=Masc
mn Masculine or neuter  Gender=Masc,Neut
fn Feminine or neuter Gender=Fem,Neut
mf Masculine or feminine Used when masculine and feminine have the same form Gender=Masc,Fem
mfn Masculine , feminine , neuter Used when masculine, feminine, and neuter have the same form Gender=Masc,Fem,Neut
ut Common From utrum, found in Scandinavian languages. Gender=Com
un Common or neuter As above, only common or neuter Gender=Com,Neut
GD Gender to be determined

Count/Mass[edit]

These tags are usually used with nouns, and things that agree/concord with nouns (like adjectives and verbs).

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
cnt Countable
unc Uncountable (mass)

Animacy[edit]

These tags are usually used with nouns, and things that agree/concord with nouns (like adjectives and verbs).

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
aa Animate Animacy=Anim
an Animate or inanimate Animacy=Anim,Inan
nn Inanimate Animacy=Inan
hu Human Animacy=Hum

Adjectives[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
sint Synthetic "nice, nicer, nicest" is synthetic. "handsome, more handsome, the most handsome" is not. wikipedia
preadj Pre-adjective for languages where most of adjectives are after the noun (ex: French in eo->fr bidix)
preadj_nh Pre-adjective if not human according to the noun, the adjective is before or after

Pronoun types[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
pers Personal  PronType=Prs
tn Tónico
detnt Neuter determiner POS?  DET
predet Pre determiner POS?  DET
atn Atónico
qnt Quantifier  PronType=Ind
ord Ordinal  NumType=Ord
obj Object
subj Subject
pro Proclitic
enc Enclitic
acr Acronym Not Pronuon?  Abbr=Yes
rel Relative  PronType=Rel
ind Indefinite  PronType=Ind
itg Interrogative  PronType=Int
dem Demonstrative PronType=Dem
def Definite
pos Possessive Poss=Yes
ref Reflexive Reflex=Yes
prx Proximate
dst Distal
expl Syntactic expletive wikipedia
rec Reciprocal Pronoun
res Reciprocal Pronoun

Transitivity[edit]

Used for verbs.

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
tv Transitive takes direct object in accusative case (used in Turkic) Subcat=Tran
iv Intransitive does not take direct object in accusative case (used in Turkic) Subcat=Intr
TD Transitivity to be determined if the sub-category is [currently] unknown

Separable verbs[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes
sep Separable verb wikipedia, lingolia, PDF
fs Separable verb in subordinate clause
fm Separable verb in main clause

Proper nouns[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal features
ant Anthroponym wikipedia, it's very common to use ant together with f and m for traditionally gender-specific names
top Toponym In some language pairs without the locative case this may be loc. Although this should be changed. wikipedia
hyd Hydronym wikipedia
cog Cognomen In normal use, surnames
org Organisation
al Altres Other, misc.
pat Patronymic A name derived from the name of a father or ancestor, e.g. Johnson, O'Brien, Ivanovich.

Inflectional morphology[edit]

Number[edit]

Note: number can be a sub-category tag too, e.g. with pronouns.

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
sg Singular Number=Sing
pl Plural Number=Plur
sp Singular or plural Number=Sing,Plur
du Dual  Number=Dual
ct Count see mk-bg Number=Count
coll Collective Number=Coll
ND Number to be determined


Case[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
nom Nominative  Case=Nom
acc Accusative  Case=Acc
dat Dative Case=Dat
gen Genitive  Case=Gen
dg Dative and Genitive in ro-es, discouraged in new developments Case=Dat,Gen
voc Vocative  Case=Voc
abl Ablative wikipedia Case=Abl
ins Instrumental or Instructive wikipedia Case=Ins
loc Locative wikipedia Case=Loc
prp Prepositional wikipedia
tra Translative Case=Tra
ill Illative  Case=Ill
ine Inessive Case=Ine
ade Adessive Case=Ade
all Allative Case=All
abe Abessive  Case=Abe
ess Essive Case=Ess
par Partitive  Case=Par
dis Distributive Case=Dis
com Comitative  Case=Com
soc Sociative
prl Prolative  Case=Pro
ses Superessive Hungarian Case=Sup
sub Sublative Hungarian Case=Sub
dela Delative Hungarian Case=Del
term Terminative Hungarian, Estonian, ... Case=Ter
temp Temporal [2] Case=Tem
obl Oblique [3] Case=Obl
erg Ergative [4] Case=Erg

Voice[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
actv Active voice  Voice=Act
pass Passive voice is more used in Turkic. Voice=Pass
pasv Passive voice is more used in Germanic. Voice=PAss
midv Middle voice  Voice=Mid
nactv Non-active voice See Albanian.
caus Causative voice see also #Derivations Voice=Cau

Tense and mode[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal features
aff Affirmative wikipedia Polarity=Pos
aor Aorist wikipedia A tense in Turkic languages.  Tense=Past
cni Conditional Lot of pairs will probably use cnd or cond... Mood=Cnd
deb Debitive mode Exclusive to Latvian (wikipedia)
fti Future indicative  Tense=Fut Mood=Ind
fts Future subjunctive Tense=Fut Mood=Sub
fut Future Tense=Fut
ger Gerund wikipedia VerbForm=Ger
ifi Past definite from Pretério perfecto o indefinido  Tense=Past Definite=Def
imp Imperative englishlanguageguide Mood=Imp
inf Infinitive wikipedia  VerbForm=Inf
infps Personal infinitive Used in Portuguese
itg Interrogative
ito Infinitive with 'to' German VerbForm=Inf
lp L-participle
neg Negative  Polarity=Neg
nonpast Non-past Tense=Pres,Fut
past Past Tense=Past
pii Imperfect from Pretério imperfecto de indicativo wikipedia  Tense=Past Mood=Ind
pis Imperfect subjunctive  Tense=Past Mood=Sub
plu Pluperfect In cy-en Tense=Pqp
pmp Pluperfect In es-gl (from Pluscamperfecto) Tense=Pqp
pp2 Past participle (???) It's at least used in the Esperanto dictionaries for future active participles, ont (seems quite odd)
pp3 Past participle (???) It's at least used in the Esperanto dictionaries for past active participles, int (seems quite odd)
pp Past participle wikipedia VerbForm=Part
pprs Present participle Also appears as ppres (deprecated) VerbForm=Part
pprs Present participle see also: pprs. wikipedia Tense=Pres Mood=Part
pres Present  Tense=Pres
pret Preterite Preterite Tense=Past
pri Present indicative see also: pres. wikipedia Tense=Pres Mood=Ind
prs Present subjunctive wikipedia Tense=Pres Mood=Sub
supn Supine wikipedia VerbForm=Sup

Aspect[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
hab Habitual Aspect=Hab
imperf Imperfective Aspect=Imp
impf Imperfective Aspect=Imp
perf Perfective Aspect=Perf

Person[edit]

Note: person can be a sub-category tag, e.g. with pronouns.

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
p1 First person Person=1
p2 Second person  Person=2
p3 Third person  Person=3
impers Impersonal Sometimes called 'autonomous'  Person=0
past3p past third person

Derivations[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes
caus Causative
ingr Ingressive https://nn.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ingressiv
subs Verbal Noun or Verbal Substantive Shorten form of substantive. Noun formed from a verb
agnt Agent noun Agent Noun

Possession[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
px1sg First person singular possessive e.g. in Turkic languages  Person[psor]=1 Number[psor]=Sing
px2sg Second person singular possessive e.g. in Turkic languages  Person[psor]=2 Number[psor]=Sing
px3sg Third person singular possessive e.g. in Turkic languages  Person[psor]=3 Number[psor]=Sing
px1pl First person plural possessive e.g. in Turkic languages  Person[psor]=1 Number[psor]=Plur
px2pl Second person plural possessive e.g. in Turkic languages  Person[psor]=2 Number[psor]=Plur
px3pl Third person plural possessive e.g. in Turkic languages  Person[psor]=3 Number[psor]=Plur
px3sp Third person possessive singular or plural e.g. in Turkic languages  Person[psor]=3

Subject marking[edit]

e.g. in verbs with both, otherwise, see #Person and #Number.

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal features
s_sg1 First person singular object Number=Sing Person=1
s_sg2 Second person singular object Number=Sing Person=2
s_sg3 Third person singular object Number=Sing Person=3
s_pl1 First person plural object Number=Plur Person=1
s_pl2 Second person plural object Number=Plur Person=2
s_pl3 Third person plural object Number=Plur Person=3


Object marking[edit]

e.g. in verbs with both

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal features
o_sg1 First person singular object
o_sg2 Second person singular object
o_sg3 Third person singular object
o_pl1 First person plural object
o_pl2 Second person plural object
o_pl3 Third person plural object

Adjectives[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal features
pst Positive  Degree=Pos
comp Comparative wikipedia Degree=Comp
sup Superlative wikipedia Degree=Sup
attr Attributive wikipedia
pred Predicative wikipedia

Others[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes
abbr Abbreviation (e.g. etc., Mr.) Acronyms are also included (see acr)
date Dates, years...
email Electronic Mail Shorten form of Electronic Mail
file Filenames
mon Money
percent Percentage e.g. 25%, 0.9%
time Time
web Links and Emails
maj Large script in which every letter is the same height
min small script in which every letter is the same height

Compounds[edit]

Symbol Gloss Notes Universal feature
cmp Compound Noun

See also[edit]

Chunk tags[edit]

Tag Description
<SN> Noun phrase / noun group (sintagma nominal)
<SA> Adjective phrase / adjective group
<SV> Verb phrase / verb group (sintagma verbal)

XML tags[edit]

Note: All XML tags are explained in depth in the PDF documentation, see also the dix.dtd and dix.rng files in the GitHub repository.

XML tag Means Appears in XML tags / notes / examples
<dictionary> Mono- or bilingual dictionary Toplevel tag for all dictionaries
<alphabet> Set of characters in the language In <dictionary>
<sdefs> Symbol definitions In <dictionary>
<sdef> Symbol definition In <sdefs>. Ex: <sdef n="noun"/>
<pardefs> Paradigm definitions In <dictionary>.
<pardef> Paradigm definition In <pardefs>.
<section> A section of the dictionary In <dictionary>. Ex: <section id="main" type="standard">
<e> A dictionary entry (a word) In <section> and in <pardef>.
<i> Invariant (left and right side) In <e>. Ex.: <i>beer</i>
<p> A pair In <e>.
<l> Left side (surface form) In <p>. Ex.: <l>beer</l>
<r> Right side (lexical unit) In <p>. Ex.: <r>beer<s n="noun"/><s n="singular"/></r>
<s> A lexical symbol (noun, adj..) In <r>, <l> and <i>. Ex.: <s n="noun"/>
<a> Post-generator wake-up mark In <r>, <l> and <i>. Ex.: <l><a/>a<s ... (for the a/an rule in English)
<b> Blank space In <r>, <l> and <i>. Ex.: <l>you're<b/>welcome<s ...
<g> Group For multiwords
<ig> Identity group Combination of <i> and <g>
<j> Join A + symbol in compounds. In Apertium-separable, <j> indicates end-of-word
<prm> Parameter Only in Metadix
<sa> Symbol Argument ??? Only in Metadix
<t> Tag or Template In Apertium-separable <t> is any tag, in crossdix it is template (matches a single tag)
<v> Variable Only in crossdix - like + in regexes

Transfer[edit]

<clip> tag[edit]

See the documentation (pdf), p.144 for more information.

XML attribute value Means Appears in attribute Notes
whole lemma and grammatical symbols part
lem lemma part
lemh (inflected) head word of multiword part
lemq following queue of multiword part

See also[edit]