English and Esperanto

From Apertium
Revision as of 14:44, 10 October 2008 by Jacob Nordfalk (talk | contribs)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Esperantistoj, b.v. vidu Peto al esperantistoj.

Intros to Esperanto

Perhaps http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Rules_of_Esperanto_grammar (or http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/rules.html) is a good overview.

And the affixes: http://esperanto.davidgsimpson.com/eo-affixes.html (short) http://steve-and-pattie.com/esperantujo/grparafx.html (longer)

Tenses are exlained in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esperanto_grammar#Verbs




Transfer rules English->Esperanto

Single word rules English->Esperanto

en pattern eo pattern en eo status
adj adj.sg.nom aggressive agresema OK
adj.pos adj.sg.nom his lia OK
adj.sint adj.sg.nom big granda OK
adj.sint.comp pli<preadv> + adj.sg.nom bigger pli granda OK
adj.sint.sup plej<preadv> + granda.adj.sg.nom biggest plej granda OK
det.def.pl det.def.pl.nom the la OK
det.def.sg det.def.sg.nom the la OK
det.def.sp det.def.sp.nom the la OK
det.dem.pl det.dem.pl.nom these ĉi tiuj OK
det.dem.sg det.dem.sg.nom this ĉi tiu OK
det.ind.pl det.ind.pl.nom both ambaŭj OK
det.ind.sg det.ind.sg.nom another alia OK
det.ind.sp det.ind.sp.nom any ajna OK
det.qnt.pl det.qnt.pl.nom few malmultaj OK
det.qnt.sg det.qnt.sg.nom less la malpli da OK
det.qnt.sp det.qnt.sp.nom enough sufiĉe da OK
n.acr.sg n.sg.nom TV televido OK. But use another example
np.al.sg np.al.sg.nom GCompris GCompris OK
np.ant.f.sg np.ant.f.sg.nom April April OK
np.ant.m.sg np.ant.m.sg.nom Robert Robert OK
np.cog.sg np.cog.sg.nom Stevenson Stevenson OK
np.cog.pl np.cog.pl.nom Stevensons Stevenson(oj?) ?
n.sg n.sg.nom hundred cento OK
n.pl n.pl.nom hundreds centoj OK
np.top.sg np.top.sg.nom Afghanistan Afganio OK
predet.sp sp all (cars) ĉiu OK - all cars
prn.itg.sp prn.itg.sg.nom what kio OK
prn.tn.pl prn.tn.pl.nom both ambaŭ OK
prn.tn.sg prn.tn.sg.nom another alia OK
prn.tn.sp prn.tn.sg.nom all ĉiu OK
vaux.pres vaux.pres can povas OK
vbdo.past vblex.past did faris OK
vbdo.pres vblex.pres do faras OK
vbdo.pres.p3.sg vblex.pres does faras OK
vbhaver.ger vblex.ger having havanta OK
vbhaver.inf vblex.inf have havi OK
vbhaver.past vblex.past had havis OK
vbhaver.pres vblex.pres have havas OK
vbhaver.pres.p3.sg vblex.pres has havas OK
vblex.pres.p3.sg vblex.pres advertises anoncas OK
vbser.past.p1.sg vbser.past was estis OK
vbser.past.p3.sg vbser.past was estis OK
vbser.pres.p1.sg vbser.pres am estas OK
vbser.pres.p3.sg vbser.pres is estas OK

Multi word rules

en pattern eo pattern en eo status

Trivial (standalone lemma types which is not changed during transfer)

en pattern eo pattern en eo status
adv adv after poste OK
adv.itg adv.itg how kiel OK
cnjadv cnjadv after post kiam OK
cnjcoo cnjcoo and kaj OK
cnjsub cnjsub that ke OK
ij ij goodbye adiaŭ OK
num.sg num.sg one unu OK
num.sp num.sp hundred cent OK
pr pr after post OK
preadv preadv any tre OK
prn.obj.p1.mf.pl prn.obj.p1.mf.pl us nin OK
prn.obj.p1.mf.sg prn.obj.p1.mf.sg me min OK
prn.obj.p2.mf.sp prn.obj.p2.mf.sp you vin OK
prn.obj.p3.f.sg prn.obj.p3.f.sg her ŝin OK
prn.obj.p3.mf.pl prn.obj.p3.mf.pl them ilin OK
prn.obj.p3.m.sg prn.obj.p3.m.sg him lin OK
prn.obj.p3.nt.sg prn.obj.p3.nt.sg it ĝin OK
prn.ref.p1.mf.pl prn.ref.p1.mf.pl ourselves nin needs <acc>
prn.ref.p1.mf.sg prn.ref.p1.mf.sg myself #mi needs <acc>
prn.ref.p2.mf.pl prn.ref.p2.mf.pl yourselves #vi needs <acc>
prn.ref.p2.mf.sg prn.ref.p2.mf.sg yourself #vi needs <acc>
prn.ref.p3.f.sg prn.ref.p3.f.sg herself #si needs <acc>
prn.ref.p3.mf.pl prn.ref.p3.mf.pl themselves #si needs <acc>
prn.ref.p3.m.sg prn.ref.p3.m.sg himself #si needs <acc>
prn.ref.p3.nt.sg prn.ref.p3.nt.sg itself #si needs <acc>
prn.subj.p1.mf.pl prn.subj.p1.mf.pl we ni OK
prn.subj.p1.mf.sg prn.subj.p1.mf.sg I mi OK
prn.subj.p2.mf.sp prn.subj.p2.mf.sp you vi OK
prn.subj.p3.f.sg prn.subj.p3.f.sg she ŝi OK
prn.subj.p3.mf.pl prn.subj.p3.mf.pl they ili OK
prn.subj.p3.m.sg prn.subj.p3.m.sg he li OK
prn.subj.p3.nt.sg prn.subj.p3.nt.sg it ĝi OK
rel.adv rel.adv where kie OK
rel.an.mf.sp rel.an.mf.sp which #\<rel\> OK
vaux.inf vaux.inf will #\<vaux\> OK
vaux.past vaux.past could povis OK
vblex.ger vblex.ger advertising anoncanta OK
vblex.imp vblex.imp affect afekciu OK
vblex.inf vblex.inf advertise anonci OK
vblex.past vblex.past advertised anoncis OK
vblex.pp vblex.pp advertised anoncita OK
vblex.pres vblex.pres advertise anoncas OK
vbser.ger vbser.ger being estanta OK
vbser.inf vbser.inf be esti OK
vbser.past vbser.past were estis OK
vbser.pp vbser.pp been estita OK
vbser.pres vbser.pres are estas OK

A note about accusative

The next kind of thing we should think about is the type of sentence part that goes like this:

'the man you saw' 'the man the girl saw'

I don't know if we have to change word order here - probably not - but the nominative and accusative are SNs 2 and 1 respectively.

But think about this:

'the man my brother became'

Adding accusative here is wrong, so what can we do about it? Not much. Maybe in this specific instance, sure, but generally, we can only take the common cases and hope for the best. There's been plenty of work into statistical parsing, subject identification, etc., but it's still not much better than picking the common cases, and hoping for the best.

This is why we always tell people to have their translations checked by a native speaker :)

Jacob TODO

<jacobn> Ok, Ill try the web doc translator more, find the systematics, report a bug and attach files etc.

See also