Dictionary coverage

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En français

An experimental tool “Apertium-dixtools” is a good tool to do frequency statistics on a dictionary. It finds out about the used entries. It works on both, normal entries as well as entries in paradigms.

The tool can be used, to check entries in both directions. This tool has been successfully used on English and Esperanto to make the eo-en direction. Contact me (--Jacob Nordfalk, 18: 07, November 3, 2009 (UTC)) on how to use the tool.

The method is explained with an example of sv-da to analyse that how much of the Danish dictionary (which contains many entries not used from sv to da) is useful. The step by step procedure is:

  1. Remove duplicates in dictionaries.
  2. Make a copy of the pair in the profiler/sub directory.
  3. Create a "profiler" version of your dictionaries.
  4. Edit the modes.xml and add a mode.
  5. Use the mode.


  • To remove duplicates in dictionary, do:
 apertium-dixtools fix -alignBidix apertium-sv-da.sv-da.dix apertium-sv-da.sv-da.dix
 apertium-dixtools fix -alignMonodix apertium-sv-da.da.dix apertium-sv-da.da.dix
 apertium-dixtools fix -alignMonodix apertium-sv-da.sv.dix apertium-sv-da.sv.dix
  • To make a copy of the pair in the profiler/ subdirectory, do:
 $ mkdir profiler/
 $ cp * profiler/*

  • To create a "profiler" version of your dictionaries(A profiler version of dictionary is a subdirectory of a dictionary), do:
 $ apertium-dixtools profilecreate . sv-da 

This will create a file dixtools-profilekeys.txt and overwrite the profiler/*.dix dictionaries.

  • Now do
 $ cd profiler
 $ make
  • To edit the modes.xml and add a mode select the place where you want to replace usage of the profiling version of the dictionary and after which the task apertium-dixtools profilecollect must be inserted.
  • To collect the data (saving it to dixtools-profiledata.txt) and filter the output for the following stages in the mode file, do:
     <program name="lt-proc $1">
       <file name="sv-da.autogen.bin"/>
     <program name="lt-proc $1">
       <file name="profiler/sv-da.autogen.bin"/>
     <program name="apertium-dixtools profilecollect">
       <file name="dixtools-profiledata.txt"/>
  • To use the mode, for example on a corpus and/or with your favorite test script, do:
 $ apertium-dixtools profileresult
 Reading dixtools-profilekeys.txt
 Reading dixtools-profiledata.txt
 Writing dixtools-profileresult.txt

How it works

To add keys to the dictionaries, do:

<pardef n="b/urde__vbmod">
  <e>       <p><l>urde</l>      <r>urde<s n="vbmod"/><s n="inf"/><s n="actv"/></r></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l>ør</l>        <r>urde<s n="vbmod"/><s n="pres"/><s n="actv"/></r></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l>urde</l>      <r>urde<s n="vbmod"/><s n="past"/><s n="actv"/></r></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l>urdet</l>     <r>urde<s n="vbmod"/><s n="pp"/></r></p></e>

<pardef n="må/tte__vaux">
  <e>       <p><l>tte</l>       <r>tte<s n="vaux"/><s n="inf"/><s n="actv"/></r></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l></l>          <r>tte<s n="vaux"/><s n="pres"/><s n="actv"/></r></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l>tte</l>       <r>tte<s n="vaux"/><s n="past"/><s n="actv"/></r></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l>ttet</l>      <r>tte<s n="vaux"/><s n="pp"/></r></p></e>

This results in:

<pardef n="b/urde__vbmod">
  <e>       <p><l>urde</l>      <r>urde<s n="vbmod"/><s n="inf"/><s n="actv"/></r></p><p><l>%bct%</l><r/></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l>ør</l>        <r>urde<s n="vbmod"/><s n="pres"/><s n="actv"/></r></p><p><l>%bcu%</l><r/></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l>urde</l>      <r>urde<s n="vbmod"/><s n="past"/><s n="actv"/></r></p><p><l>%bcv%</l><r/></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l>urdet</l>     <r>urde<s n="vbmod"/><s n="pp"/></r></p><p><l>%bcw%</l><r/></p></e>

<pardef n="må/tte__vaux">
  <e>       <p><l>tte</l>       <r>tte<s n="vaux"/><s n="inf"/><s n="actv"/></r></p><p><l>%bcx%</l><r/></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l></l>          <r>tte<s n="vaux"/><s n="pres"/><s n="actv"/></r></p><p><l>%bcy%</l><r/></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l>tte</l>       <r>tte<s n="vaux"/><s n="past"/><s n="actv"/></r></p><p><l>%bcz%</l><r/></p></e>
  <e>       <p><l>ttet</l>      <r>tte<s n="vaux"/><s n="pp"/></r></p><p><l>%bd0%</l><r/></p></e>

The dixtools-profileresult.txt now contains:

0 bct <e><l>urde</l><r>urde<vbmod><inf><actv></r></e>
0 bcu <e><l>ør</l><r>urde<vbmod><pres><actv></r></e>
0 bcv <e><l>urde</l><r>urde<vbmod><past><actv></r></e>
0 bcw <e><l>urdet</l><r>urde<vbmod><pp></r></e>
1 bcx <e><l>tte</l><r>tte<vaux><inf><actv></r></e>
41 bcy <e><l></l><r>tte<vaux><pres><actv></r></e>
1 bcz <e><l>tte</l><r>tte<vaux><past><actv></r></e>
1 bd0 <e><l>ttet</l><r>tte<vaux><pp></r></e>

So you can see that the first paradigm isn't used at all. While, in the 2nd paradigm the %bcy% was used 41 times and the other entries 1 time each.