Darkgaia: English and Chinese Translation Rules (Advanced)

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English and Chinese Translation Rules

Sentence Structure

English (Verb oriented sentence structure)

  • SV (intransitive)
  • SVO (transitive + object)/(Prep + verb + object)
  • SVOO (direct + indirect object)
  • SVC (linluing V / transitive V / verb to "be" + Complement)
  • SVOC
  • SVOA (Adverbial [壮语]) 壮中结构
  • SVA

Chinese (Subject + Predicate single sentences) (主谓单句)

  • 动词谓语句 (SV, similar to English)
  • 名词谓语句 (No verb, N + N)
  • 形容词谓语句 (主)(谓) (Theme and Rheme)
  • 主谓谓语句 [(主)( 谓 ) ]

Missing Subject Sentences (零主语句)

Chinese sentences need not necessarily have a subject (the subject can be omitted, or defined implicitly according the context). However, English sentences usually do. The translator must remember to replace the appropriate subject (also known as a "dummy subject") into the English sentence after translation.

Connecting Sentences (流水句)

These are Chinese sentences used to connect ideas in a Chinese paragraph. When translating into English, one must remember to observe the appropriate English sentence structure: The first clause followed by additional supplementary information.

"Is" Sentences (“是”字句)

The Chinese equivalent of "Is" is the word “是”. A translator must take note of the words before and after 是 in order to produce the correct equivalent logical translation in English.


English -> Chinese

SVO[C] -> [(话题),(说明)]

(eng) Subjects are usually noun-based.

  • Noun Phrases
  • Infinitive Verbs
  • "What"
  • "That"

They can also be descriptions about time or locations (Proper Nouns)

(eng) English contains the use of Marked Themes/Sentence structures to convey emphasis 英语也有“话题--说明”句子.

(zho) The subjects of Chinese Sentences need not necessarily be a noun/noun phrase

Tree Structures vs Branch Structures

(树式结构 vs 竹式结构)

(eng) Simple sentence structure: Subject + Predicate (基本的主干 → 主语+谓语)

  • Any further sentences or supplements branch from this basic sentence structure. (“树枝” 从主干发展出来的)

(zho) Do not conform to to one specific sentence structure (不存在一个主干结构,没有主干与树枝之分)

  • Relies on meaning and conjunctions to continually add clauses. (靠意思和虚词等关联词)

Importance of Subjects

English Chinese
test 1 2 3
hi place holder hi