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Languages of the Volga-Kama region

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The languages of the Volga-Kama region include several Turkic and Uralic languages spoken in the Volga-Kama region (along the Volga and Kama rivers) in Russia. These include [varieties of] Tatar, Bashqort, Chuvash, Mari, Komi, Mordvin, and Udmurt (and linguistically, to some extent, Russian).

The master plan involves generating independent finite-state transducers for each language, and then making individual dictionaries and transfer rules for every pair. The current status of these goals is listed below.

[edit] Status

The ultimate goal is to have multi-purposable transducers for a variety of Volga-Kama languages. These can then be paired for X→Y translation with the addition of a CG for language X and transfer rules / dictionary for the pair X→Y. Below is listed development progress for each language's transducers and dictionary pairs.

[edit] Transducers

Once a transducer has ~80% coverage on a range of medium-large corpora we can say it is "working". Over 90% and it can be considered to be "production".

name Language ISO 639 formalism state stems coverage location primary authors
-2 -3
apertium-myv Erzya myv HFST (lexc+twol) development 74,977 apertium-myv-fin (incubator) Fran, Jack Rueter
apertium-tat Tatar tt tat HFST (lexc+twol) production 55528 ~91% apertium-tat (languages) Ilnar, Fran, Jonathan, Röstäm
apertium-chv Chuvash cv chv HFST (lexc+twol) development 8,579 ~85% apertium-chv (languages) Hèctor
apertium-bak Bashkir ba bak HFST (lexc+twol) development 2,827 ~66% apertium-bak (languages) Fran, Jonathan, Ilnar, Milli
apertium-mrj Hill Mari mrj HFST (lexc+twol) development 53,051 apertium-mrj-fin (incubator) Fran, kuprina, jackrueter
apertium-udm Udmurt udm HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 196 apertium-udm-rus (nursery) Fran, Trond, Andrey, Лукерья, Алексей
apertium-kpv Komi-Zyrian kpv HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 135 apertium-kpv-mhr (incubator) Fran, Trond, Fedina, Andrei Chemyshev
apertium-mhr Meadow Mari mhr HFST (lexc+twol) prototype 117 apertium-kpv-mhr (incubator) Fran, Fedina, Andrei Chemyshev

[edit] Existing language pairs

Text in italic denotes language pairs under development / in the incubator. Regular text denotes a functioning language pair in staging, while text in bold denotes a stable well-working language pair in trunk.

tat chv bak mrj udm mhr myv kpv
tat - chv-tat
chv chv-tat
bak tat-bak
mrj -
udm -
mhr - kpv-mhr
myv -
kpv kpv-mhr
fin mrj-fin
kaz kaz-tat'
kir tat-kir
rus tat-rus
tur tur-tat

[edit] The languages

[edit] Volga-Kama languages by subgroup

[edit] Volga-Kama language vulnerability

The following table shows information about Volga-Kama varieties.

language iso num speakers UNESCO classification
Tatar tat 6500K 0. none
Bashqort bak 1379K 1. vulnerable
Chuvash chv 1325K 1. vulnerable
Udmurt udm 0464K 2. definitely endangered
Mari - Eastern mhr 0414K 2. definitely endangered
Mordvin - Erzya myv 0400K 2. definitely endangered
Komi - Zyryan kpv 0217K 2. definitely endangered
Mordvin - Moksha mdf 0200K 2. definitely endangered
Komi - Permyak koi 0094K 2. definitely endangered
Mari - Western mrj 0037K 3. severely endangered
Komi - Yazva koi 0000K 3. severely endangered

[edit] Existing general resources

[edit] Grammars

[edit] Dictionaries

[edit] Existing computational resources

[edit] Corpora and corpora projects

[edit] Spell-checkers

[edit] Text-to-speech and speech-to-text systems

[edit] Keyboards

  • Xkb includes keyboards for the following languages:
    • Tatar
    • Chuvash
    • ...?

[edit] Morphological Transducers

[edit] Scholarship

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