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Languages of the Caucasus

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The Caucasus is home to a number of languages and language families. The term "Languages of the Caucasus" is mostly a geographic grouping and does not imply anything about the relatedness of the languages or even their similarity (due to processes like language contact). A division may be made between North Caucasus languages and South Caucasus languages. North Caucasus languages include Kumyk, Nogay, Karachay-Balkar, Avar, Chechen, Kabardian, Lak, Lezgian, Ossetian, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Ingushetian, etc., while South Caucasus languages include Georgian, Azeri, and Armenian.

[edit] Status

kum, nog, krc, ava, che, oss, abk, ady, inh, kbd, lbe, lez, kat, aze, hye

[edit] Transducers

name Language native name ISO 639 formalism state stems coverage location primary authors
-2 -3
apertium-kum Kumyk къумукъ тил - kum HFST (lexc+twol) working 4,918 ~90.2% apertium-kum (languages) Fran, Jonathan
apertium-ava Avar Магӏарул мацӏ - ava HFST (lexc+twol) development 4,904 ~86.5% apertium-ava (languages) Fran,
apertium-nog Nogay Ногай тили - nog HFST (lexc+twol) development 1,385 ~81.4% apertium-nog (languages) Fran, Jonathan
apertium-hye Armenian - hye HFST (lexc+twol) development 8,247 ~63.5% apertium-hye (languages) Fran,
apertium-oss Ossetian os oss lttoolbox development 111 ~17% apertium-oss (incubator)
apertium-aze Azerbaijani Azərbaycan dili az aze SFST not known to work apertium-tur-aze (staging) Gianluca

[edit] Languages by family

[edit] Existing language pairs

kum nog krc ava che oss abk ady inh kat aze hye
kum -
nog -
krc -
ava -
che -
oss -
abk -
ady -
inh -
kat -
aze -
hye -
eng hye-eng
12,218
kaz kaz-kum
561
nog-kaz
9
rus ava-rus
5,509
tur tur-aze
8,194

[edit] Endangerment

Language ISO639-3 Location Speakers Status
Ethnologue UNESCO
Nogay nog Russian Federation 87,410 5 (Developing) 2 (Definitely endangered)
Kumyk kum Russian Federation 426,550 5 (Developing) 1 (Vulnerable)
Ossetic oss Georgia, Russian Federation 577,450 5 (Developing) 1 (Vulnerable)
Kabardian kbd Russian Federation, Turkey 1,628,500 5 (Developing) 1 (Vulnerable)
Lak lbe Russian Federation 153,170 4 (Educational) 1 (Vulnerable)
Karachay-Balkar krc Russian Federation 310,730 4 (Educational) 1 (Vulnerable)
Ingush inh Russian Federation 322,900 4 (Educational) 1 (Vulnerable)
Avar ava Russian Federation 761,960 4 (Educational) 1 (Vulnerable)
Lezgi lez Azerbaijan, Russian Federation 788,720 4 (Educational) 1 (Vulnerable)
Abkhaz abk Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey 112,740 2 (Provincial) 1 (Vulnerable)
Adyghe ady Iraq, Israel, Jordan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Russian Federation, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey 491,800 2 (Provincial) 1 (Vulnerable)
Chechen che Russian Federation 1,361,000 2 (Provincial) 1 (Vulnerable)
Georgian kat Georgia 4,237,710 1 (National) -
Armenian hye Armenia & Georgia, Russian Federation 5,924,320 1 (National) 3 (Severely endangered)
Azerbaijani, Northern azj Azerbaijan 7,324,270 1 (National) -

[edit] Examples

Language Text
Ossetian Адӕймӕгтӕ се' ппӕт дӕр райгуырынц сӕрибарӕй ӕмӕ ӕмхуызонӕй сӕ барты. Уыдон ӕххӕст сты зонд ӕмӕ намысӕй, ӕмӕ кӕрӕдзийӕн хъуамӕ уой ӕфсымӕрты хуызӕн.
Abkhaz Дарбанзаалак ауаҩы дшоуп ихы дақәиҭны. Ауаа зегь зинлеи патулеи еиҟароуп. Урҭ ирымоуп ахшыҩи аламыси, дара дарагь аешьеи аешьеи реиҧш еизыҟазароуп.
Georgian ყველა ადამიანი იბადება თავისუფალი და თანასწორი თავისი ღირსებითა და უფლებებით. მათ მინიჭებული აქვთ გონება და სინდისი და ერთმანეთის მიმართ უნდა იქცეოდნენ ძმობის სულისკვეთებით.
Armenian Բոլոր մարդիկ ծնվում են ազատ ու հավասար իրենց արժանապատվությամբ ու իրավունքներով։ Նրանք ունեն բանականություն ու խիղճ և միմյանց պետք է եղբայրաբար վերաբերվեն։
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