Contrastive grammar:English and Hindi
Contrastive Grammar:English and Hindi
While talking about contrastive grammar of English and Hindi, there is a lot of difference in grammar of English and Hindi.For example:in their sentence formation, pronunciation, use of different words and all. different ways in which these languages are different from each other are:-
Difference in pronunciation:-
when somebody use to pronounce both the languages he will find these their is a lot of difference in them.for example: translations, without language arrangement, of the sentences from English to Hindi are:
1 He is playing. → ही इस प्लेयिंग|
2 There is nobody in the room. → देअर इस नोबडी इन द रूम|
3 Are you a patient? → आर यू अ पेशेंट?
4 Adam will be there. → आदम विल बी देअर|
5 The car was so far from here. → दा कार वास सो फार फ्रॉम हियर
translations, without language arrangement, of the sentences from Hindi to English are:
1 वह खेल रहा है| → Veh khel raha hai. 2 कमरे में कोई नहीं था| → Kamre main koi nahi tha. 3 क्या तुम एक मरीज हो? → Kya thum ek mariz ho? 4 आदम वहां होगा| → Adam vahan hoga. 5 कार यहाँ से बहुत दूर थी | → Car yahan se bahut soor thee. Difference in sentence structure:-
There is a lot of difference in sentence structure of both the languages the sentence structure of English is Subject-Verb-object(SVO) and sentence structure of Hindi is Subject-Object-Verb(SOV)
Transformation without word rearrangement,from English to Hindi are:
1 He drank the water.→ उसने पिया पानी|
2 He give him clothes.→ उसने दिये उसे कपडे|
3 Mona was chewing the food.→ मोना रही थी चबा खाना|
4 This cat was so lazy.→ यह बिल्ली थी बड़ी सुस्त|
5 She climbed up very fast.→वह चडी उपर बड़ी तीज|
Transformation without word rearrangement,from Hindi to English are:
1 उसने पानी पिया| → He the water drink.
2 उसने उसे कपडे दिये| → He him clothes give
3 मोना खाना चबा रही थी| → Mona food chewing was
4 यह बिल्ली बहुत सुस्त थी| → This cat very lazy was
5 वह बहुत तेज़ी से चढ़ रही थी| → She very fast climb up was.
Use of Gender:
Gender is used by both languages differently. For example English has gender on pronouns and Hindi has no gender on pronouns.
For example: In Hindi for both genders we use different pronouns which is' उसने','वह'and 'उसे'
1 उसे बाहर जाना था|
2 वह खाना खा रही थी|
3 वह सो रहा था|
4 उसने पानी पिया|
For example : In English for both genders we use different pronouns for different genders which are:'he' and 'she'
1 He was very ill.
2 She is jealous of none.
3 He is very dirty.
4 She was very late yesterday.
Use of articles: In Hindi there is no use of different articles just एक is used at special sentences
1 वह एक हाथी है|
2 उसके पास बॉल थी|
3 वह ताज महल देखने गया था|
4 वह इमानदार है|
In English there is well use of articles:
1 This is an elephant.
2 He has a ball.
3 He was gone to see the Taj mahal.
4 He is honest.
Description of past, present and future sentence
In Hindi past present and future sentences are differed by "था, है, होगा" etc
1 वह कहाँ जा रहा था|
2 वह क्या कर रहा था?
3 उसे कहा जाना है?
4 वोह जा चुकी है |
5 राम आ रहा होगा|
In English language the difference in past present and future sentences is described by using "is, was, will"
1 He was a good man.
2 She is a dancer.
3 You are an artist.
4 She will be a photographer.
5 He will be a humble person.
Difference in interrogative sentence
In Hindi language, some interrogative sentences are shown by adding a question mark after the whole sentence,where in some sentences some special words are used like "क्या किसने क्यों कहा" etc
1 उसने तुमे क्या बताया?
2 वह क्या कर रहा है?
3 वह कब आएगा?
4 सीमा काकन है?
where in English language an interrogative sentence is shown by adding "where when what how etc" as well as putting the helping verb first for example:
1 Are you there?
2 Is this your mobile?
3 Have you gone mad?
4 Are you seriously a criminal?
Difference in letters:
In Hindi language all letters are in one form but In English some letters are to keep capital and some are to keep small:
1क्या रोहन सो रहा है ? / Is Rohan sleeping?
2 वह कह रहा था की डीन जिन्दा है| / He was telling that Dean is alive.
3 वह खड़ा था| / He was standing.
4 सारा कम उसे ही करने पड़ा| / He have to do the whole work.
5 वह जा रहा है | / He is going.
Difference in use of some special symbols"-
In Hindi whenever we have to give pressure on a word, in other words whenever we have to pronounce them in other form using same letters instead of arranging the letters we use some special symbols called"मात्राएं" where in English we rearrange words to differ the pronunciation. for example:
1 क्या to किया / Paul to Pool
2 कम to कमा / Sun to Soon
3 मान to मना / Can to Con
4 साम to समा / Bean to Boon
5 कामना कमाना / Heal to Hell
Difference in use of Determiners(few/little)
In English we use 'few' to express countable less in quantity things and use 'little' to express uncountable less things.whereas in Hindi we use same words for countable as well as uncountable things. For example
1 There was little water in the jug. / जग में पानी कम था|
2 He was left with few marbles. / उसको कम कंचे दिये गए थे|
3 Sony had little honey. / सोनी के पास कम शहद था|
4 Is she had little sugar in coffee? / क्या उसकी कॉफ़ी में चीनी कम थी?
5 Yes, there was few apples. / हा, वहा सेब कम थे|
Use of auxiliary verbs : In English we use auxiliary verb . An auxiliary verb is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears these verbs are also called helping verbs, whereas in Hindi we use no auxiliary or helping verb. for example:-
1 He have all the balls. / उसके पास सारी गेंदे है|
2 Is he having the contract? / क्या उसके पास ठेका है?
3 Sony had worked very hard. / सोनी ने कड़ी मेहनत की|
4 She has the right of freedom. / उसके पास आज़ादी का अधीकार है|
5 I had finished my task. / मैंने आपना कम पूरा कर दिया|