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Mandarin Chinese

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Mandarin Chinese (Wikipedia:Mandarin Chinese) is a Sino-Tibetan language (Wikipedia:Sino-Tibetan languages). Although currently there is no stable language pair involving Mandarin Chinese (see list of language pairs), there is some linguistic data in Apertium.

'Chinese' is a broad term consisting of hundreds of local language varieties (dialects), including Hokkien, Gan, Hakka, Cantonese, etc. Mandarin Chinese in this case refers to the most commonly spoken form of Chinese that is the sole official language of China and Taiwan. It is also known as Putonghua or Standard Chinese (Wikipedia:Standard Chinese). Speakers of Chinese are estimated to be more than 1 billion (the highest total number of speakers in the world!).

In the Machine Translation context, one does not need to be too concerned with the various dialects, as their lexicon is mostly similar; differing mainly in phonology, tonal and spoken idiolects, and rarely, grammar usage. Furthermore, by specifying that Standard 'Putonghua' Chinese is the main focus of translation, any hassle with regard to Chinese dialects can be done away with entirely. However, what is significant about the Chinese language are the differences between "Traditional" and "Simplified" Chinese; the characters are different for 'Traditional' (used in Taiwan and Hong Kong) and 'Simplified' (used in Mainland China, Singapore, and Malaysia). Many online machine translators are able to convert between these characters easily.

[edit] In Apertium

[edit] Morphological transducer & disambiguator

[edit] Language pairs

Incubator

[edit] Resources

[edit] General

[edit] Machine translation

[edit] Grammars

  • Chao, Yuen Ren. (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN: 0-520-00219-9. {ALEX PL1137.S6C5 1968}
  • Claudia Ross and Jing-heng Sheng Ma. (2006). Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar. New York: Routledge.
  • He, Wayne W., Dela Jiao and Christopher M. Livaccari. (2010). Structures of Mandarin Chinese for Speakers of English I. Peking University Press, Paper. ISBN: 978-7-301-17971-0.
  • Huang, C. -T. James, Y. -H. Audrey Li, and Yafei Li. (2009). The Syntax of Chinese. Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 0521590582.
  • Kratochvil, P. The Chinese Language Today. {ALEX PL1087.K7}
  • Li, Charles N. & Sandra A. Thompson. (1981). Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN: 0-520-04286-7. {ALEX PL1107.L5}
  • Li Dejin and Cheng Meizhen. (2009). A Practical Chinese Grammar for Foreigners. Revised Edition. Beijing Language and Culture University Press, Paper. ISBN: 978-7-561-92163-0.
  • Lu, Fubo. (1996). 卢福波著. 《对外汉语教学实用语法》. Beijing Languages and Culture University Press, Paper. ISBN 978-7-5619-0474-9.
  • Yip Po-Ching and Don Rimmington. (1997). Chinese: An Essential Grammar. New York: Routledge. {Paul Robeson (Camden) PL1107.Y57 1996}
  • Yue, Anne O. (2003). Chinese dialects: grammar, in Thurgood, Graham; LaPolla, Randy J. (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, Routledge, pp. 84–125, ISBN 978-0-7007-1129-1.
  • ADVANCED CHINESE GRAMMAR
  • Chinese Grammar Wiki All Set Learning
  • Chinese Grammar (Wikipedia)

[edit] Morphology

  • Dai, John Xiangling. (1992). Chinese morphology and its interface with the syntax. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus.
  • Duanmu, San. (1998). “Wordhood in Chinese”. New approaches to Chinese word formation: Morphology, phonology and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese.
  • Feng, Shengli. (1998). Prosodic structure and compound words in classical Chinese. In New approaches to Chinese word formation: morphology, phonology and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese.
  • Lu, Zhi-wei. (1965). Hànyǔ de goùcí fǎ (Chinese morphology). Peking: Kēxué Publishing Co.
  • Matthews, Peter Hugoe. (1991). Morphology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Packard, Jerome Lee. (2000). The Morphology of Chinese: A Linguistic and Cognitive Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Tang, Ting-chi. (1989). Hànyǔ cífǎ jùfǎ lùjí (Studies on Chinese morphology and syntax). Taipei: Taiwan Xīnxuéshēng Book Co.
  • Zhu, Jia-ning. (1999). Hànyǔ cíhuì xué (Chinese morphology). Taipei: Wǔnán Túshū Publishing Co.
  • Chinese Morphology: An Exploratory Study of Second Language Learners’ Acquisition of Compounds National Chengchi University, Taiwan
  • Morphology Chinese 101 101 Languages

[edit] Dictionaries

Monolingual
Multilingual
Wordlists

[edit] Miscellaneous

[edit] Corpora

Personal tools