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Starting a new language with lttoolbox

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(The language)
(Paradigms)
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;Masculine inanimate
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;Masculine inanimate (''hrěch'' "sin")
   
 
The differences from the masculine animate paradigm are indicated in blue.
 
The differences from the masculine animate paradigm are indicated in blue.
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|-
 
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;Feminine
 
;Feminine
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The parts in common with the masculine paradigms are highlighted in green.
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{|class=wikitable
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! !! Singular !! Dual !! Plural
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|-
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| Nominative || wrón'''a''' || wróna'''je''' || wróna'''y'''
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|-
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| Genitive || wrón'''u''' || <span style="background-color:#ccffcc">wróna'''ow'''</span> || <span style="background-color:#ccffcc">wróna'''ow'''</span>
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|-
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| Dative || wrón'''je''' || <span style="background-color:#ccffcc">wróna'''omaj'''</span> || <span style="background-color:#ccffcc">wróna'''am'''</span>
  +
|-
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| Accusative || wrón'''u''' || wróna'''je''' || wróna'''y'''
  +
|-
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| Instrumental || wrón'''u''' || <span style="background-color:#ccffcc">wróna'''omaj'''</span> || <span style="background-color:#ccffcc">wróna'''ami'''</span>
  +
|-
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| Locative || wrón'''je''' || <span style="background-color:#ccffcc">wróna'''omaj'''</span> || <span style="background-color:#ccffcc">wróna'''ach'''</span>
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|-
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| Vocative || wrón'''a'''! || wróna'''je'''! || wróna'''u'''!
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|-
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|}
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;Neuter
 
;Neuter

Revision as of 23:22, 20 December 2011

Contents

For information on how to install lttoolbox, see lttoolbox and minimal installation from SVN

This page is going to describe how to start a new language with lttoolbox. As lttoolbox is not really suited to agglutinative languages, or languages with complex and regular morphophonology (see starting a new language with HFST), we're going to work on one with simpler and less regular morphology.

Preliminaries

A morphological transducer in lttoolbox has typically one file, a .dix file. This defines both how morphemes in the language are joined together, morphotactics, and how changes happen when these morphemes are joined together, morphographemics (or morphophonology). For example,

  • Morphotactics: wolf<n><pl> → wolf + s
  • Morphographemics: wolf + s → wolves

These two phenomena are treated in the same file.

The language

The language we will be modelling is Upper Sorbian, a Slavic language spoken in Germany. There is a limited grammar available in English here and that is what we will be basing our analysis on. The part of speech we're going to look at for this small tutorial is nouns. Nouns in Upper Sorbian have seven cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, instrumental, vocative), three numbers (singular, dual, plural) and three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter). Like other Slavic languages, the category of animacy is distinguished in the masculine.

Paradigms

Here we give four example paradigms.

Masculine animate (nan "father")
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative nan nanaj nanojo
Genitive nana nanow nanow
Dative nanej nanomaj nanam
Accusative nana nanow nanow
Instrumental nanom nanomaj nanami
Locative nanje nanomaj nanach
Vocative nano! nanaj! nanojo!
Masculine inanimate (hrěch "sin")

The differences from the masculine animate paradigm are indicated in blue.

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative hrěch hrěchaj hrěchi
Genitive hrěcha hrěchow hrěchow
Dative hrěchej hrěchomaj hrěcham
Accusative hrěch hrěchaj hrěchi
Instrumental hrěchom hrěchomaj hrěchami
Locative hrěchu hrěchomaj hrěchach
Vocative hrěcho! hrěchaj! hrěchi!
Feminine

The parts in common with the masculine paradigms are highlighted in green.

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative wróna wrónaje wrónay
Genitive wrónu wrónaow wrónaow
Dative wrónje wrónaomaj wrónaam
Accusative wrónu wrónaje wrónay
Instrumental wrónu wrónaomaj wrónaami
Locative wrónje wrónaomaj wrónaach
Vocative wróna! wrónaje! wrónau!


Neuter

Lexicon

The basics

Compiling

Paradigms

Analysis and generation

Troubleshooting

Notes


Further reading

See also

Personal tools