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Afrikaans and English/Contrastive grammar

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Verlede tyd (Past tense)

In English, past tense usually just involves changing the verb to its past tense form (usually by adding an '-ed' suffix to the end of the verb), but in Afrikaans, past tense usually involves adding a 'het' in the place of the verb, and then moving the verb to the end of the sentence and adding a 'ge-' prefix to the verb. If there's a preposition at the end of the sentence though, you join the preposition and the verb together.

The only verb that 'changes' when a 'ge-' prefix is added is 'eet' (eat), in which case it changes into 'het geëet' (ate)

The general rule is 'het' + 'ge-participle'. This also translates for the 'have' + 'participle' in English, so 'Ek het gehardloop' in Afrikaans, is the same as 'I have run' in English, since the word 'het' means 'have' in English.

  • (EN) I run today -> I ran yesterday; (AFR) Ek hardloop vandag -> Ek het gister gehardloop
  • (EN) I kick the ball -> I kicked the ball; (AFR) Ek skop die bal -> Ek het die bal geskop
  • (EN) I knock the vase off -> I knocked the vase off; (AFR) Ek klop die vaas af -> Ek het die vaas afgeklop

However, in Afrikaans, the exceptions to this rule include:

  • The auxiliary verbs 'kan', 'wil', 'moet', 'mag', and 'sal', and the verb 'is', in which case only they change to 'kon', 'wou', 'moes', 'mog', 'sou', and 'was', while the rest of the sentence stays the same.
    • (EN) I can do it -> I could do it; (AFR) Ek kan dit doen -> Ek kon dit doen
    • (EN) I am a doughnut -> I was a doughnut; (AFR) Ek is 'n donut -> Ek was 'n donut
  • Words with 'be-', 'ge-', 'her-', 'er-', 'ont-', or 'ver-' prefix don't get a new 'ge-' suffix, staying the same.
    • (EN) I recognize the man -> I recognized the man; (AFR) Ek herken die man -> Ek het die man herken
  • Sentences with 'begin', 'probeer', 'gaan', or 'laat' in them. No 'ge-' prefix is added, and the words get moved to the end of the sentence.
    • (EN) I begin cooking it -> I began cooking it; (AFR) Ek begin dit kook -> Ek het dit begin kook
    • (EN) I let him begin talking -> I let him begin talking; (AFR) Ek laat hom begin praat -> Ek het hom laat begin praat
  • For sentences with an infinitive at the end, the verb moves directly before the infinitive.
    • (EN) I like to run. -> I liked to run; (AFR) Ek hou daarvan om te hardloop. -> Ek het daarvan gehou om te hardloop.
  • If there are occurrences of the words 'dan', 'as', 'wanneer', or 'nou' in the sentence, they change to 'toe'. However, 'nou -> toe' is the same as 'now -> then' in English, while the rest are different because they are conjunctions that mean 'then', 'when', and 'when' respectively.
    • (EN) I like it when it is hot. -> I liked it when it was hot; (AFR) Ek geniet dit wanneer dit warm is. -> Ek het die geniet toe dit warm was.
    • (EN) I eat, then I drink -> I ate, then I drank; (AFR) Ek eet, dan drink ek -> Ek het geëet, toe het ek gedrink

Intensiewe vorm (Intensive form)

In Afrikaans, there are special words that describe intensive form, whereas in English there are no such words, and the ideas are expressed as similes or 2 words instead. Here is a list of a few intensive form examples:

Intensiewe vorm (Intensive form) requiring separate metaphor
Oorspronklike woord (Original word) Intensiewe vorm (Intensive form) English translation original word Literal English translation intensive form
Blind Stokblind Blind As blind as a stick
Nodig Broodnodig Necessary As necessary as bread
Flou Stokflou Weak As weak as a stick
Doof Stokdoof Deaf As deaf as a stick
Rond Koeëlrond Round As round as a bullet
Skraal Rietskraal Slim As slim as a reed
Soet Stroopsoet Sweet As sweet as syrup
Arm Brandarm Poor As poor as fire
Gek Stapelgek Crazy As crazy as a staple
Bitter Galbitter Bitter As bitter as bile
Duur Peperduur Expensive As expensive as pepper
Wit Spierwit White As white as muscle
Swaar Loodswaar Heavy As heavy as lead
Warm Vuurwarm Warm/hot As hot as fire
Weinig Bloedweinig Sparse As sparse as blood
Suur Asynsuur Sour As sour as vinegar
Intensiewe vorm (Intensive form) requiring only 2 words
Oorspronklike woord (Original word) Intensiewe vorm (Intensive form) English translation original word English translation intensive form
Helder Kristalhelder Clear Crystal clear
Seker Doodseker Sure Dead sure
Bleek Doodsbleek Pale Deathly pale
Koud Yskoud Cold Ice cold
Rooi Bloedrooi Red Blood red
Bekend Wêreldbekend Famous World famous
Swart Pikswart Black Pitch black
Wyd Wêreldwyd Wide Worldwide
Lelik Skreeulelik Ugly Scream ugly
Mal Aapmal Crazy Apeshit crazy
Vinnig Blitsvinnig Quick Lightning quick
Vol Propvol Full Plug full

Note that all negative physical traits have a 'stok-' prefix in their intensive form, and that many intensive forms have a 'dood-' prefix.

Voegwoorde (Conjunctions)

Joining 2 sentences

In English, there are only 2 types of conjunctions - coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. However, in Afrikaans, there are 3 types - group 1 (Similar to coordinating conjunctions), group 2, and group 3.

Group 1 conjunctions behave exactly the same as English conjunctions, but word order for group 2 and group 3 change.

  • Group 2 is more simple than group 3. The conjunctions are dus (thus), daarom (therefore), anders (else), daarna (then), dan (then), intussen (meanwhile), nietemin (nonetheless), gevolglik (following that), al (although), nogtans (still), tog (now), nou (now), and toe (then). The rule for this is that you join the 2 sentences together, and then move the first verb of the second sentence right next to the conjunction. There are no exceptions to this rule.
  • This is because Afrikaans is a verb-second language like German and Dutch, and because all group 2 conjunctions are adverbs, so the verb precedes the subject because it has to come second
    • (EN) I ran. I slept. -> I ran, then I slept; (AFR) Ek het gehardloop. Ek het geslaap. -> Ek het gehardloop, toe het ek geslaap; (Literal EN) I have run, then have I slept
    • (EN) I am hungry. I eat. -> I am hungry, therefore I eat; (AFR) Ek is honger. Ek eet. -> Ek is honger, daarom eet ek; (Literal EN) I am hungry, therefore eat I
  • Group 3 has by far the most exceptions and rules. The conjunctions are all conjunctions ending with '-dat' e.g. omdat (because), all question words e.g. waar (where), terwyl (while), alhoewel (although), aangesien (seeing that), sodra (as soon as), sedert (since), mits (provided that), tensy (unless), indien (if), and 'of' (if) But only in indirect speech. The general rule for this is that you move the first verb to the end of the sentence when you join the sentences.
    • (EN) I am wet. I swim in the pool. -> I am wet because I swim in the pool; (AFR) Ek is nat. Ek swem in die swembad. -> Ek is nat omdat ek in die swembad swem; (Literal EN) I am wet because I in the swimming pool swim
    • (EN) I go to the rugby match. I am sick -> I go to the rugby match although I am sick; (AFR) Ek gaan na die rugby wedstryd. Ek is siek -> Ek gaan na die rugby wedstryd alhoewel ek siek is; (Literal EN) I go to the rugby match although I sick am
  • The exceptions of group 3 are as follows:
    • When there are 2 verbs, if the first verb is an auxiliary verb or begin, probeer, gaan, or laat, it moves right before the second verb. Otherwise, the first verb simply moves to the end of the sentence.
      • (EN) I am literate. I can read. -> I am literate because I can read; (AFR) Ek is geletterd. Ek kan lees. -> Ek is geletterd omdat ek kan lees.
      • (EN) I am tired. I start to do my homework. -> I am tired because I start to do my homework; (AFR) Ek is moeg. Ek begin my huiswerk doen. -> Ek is moeg omdat ek my huiswerk begin doen.
    • If there is an infinitive at the end of the second sentence, the verb moves directly before the infinitive.
      • (EN) I am fat. I like to eat -> I am fat because I like to eat; (AFR) Ek is vet. Ek hou daarvan om te eet. -> Ek is vet omdat ek daarvan hou om te eet.

Starting a sentence with a conjunction

In Afrikaans, you can only start a sentence with a group 3 conjunction, or 'al' from the group 2 conjunctions. The word order changes in Afrikaans depending on the conjunction, but stays the same in English in all cases.

For 'al', you simply move the first verbs in both sentences to the front of the sentence, similar to a normal group 2 conjunction sentence.

  • (EN) I am sick. I go to school. -> Although I am sick, I go to school; (AFR) Ek is siek. Ek gaan skool toe. -> Al is ek siek, gaan ek skool toe; (Literal EN) Although am I sick, go I to school
  • (EN) I got transformed into a milkshake. I am still very happy. -> Although I got transformed into a milkshake, I am still very happy; (AFR) Ek het in 'n melkskommel verander. Ek is nog baie gelukkig. -> Al het ek in 'n melkskommel verander, is ek nog baie gelukkig; (Literal EN) Although have I into a milkshake transformed, am I still very happy

For the group 3 conjunctions, you simply move the first verb of the first sentence to the end of the sentence, and bring the first verb of the second sentence to the front of the sentence.

  • (EN) I threw the ball at his face. He started crying. -> Because I threw the ball at his face, he started crying; (AFR) Ek het die bal teen sy gesig gegooi. Hy het begin huil. -> Omdat ek die bal teen sy gesig gegooi het, het hy begin huil; (Literal EN) Because I the ball against his face thrown have, has he begun crying
  • (EN) I ate a cake. I was hungry. -> Before I ate a cake, I was hungry; (AFR) Ek het 'n koek geëet. Ek was honger. -> Voordat ek 'n koek geëet het, was ek honger; (Literal EN) Before I a cake eaten have, was I hungry

Ontkennende vorm (Negative form)

In Afrikaans, the general rule for negatives is to put a 'nie' after the first verb, and then another 'nie' at the very end of the sentence, a sort of 'nie... nie' bracketing system to indicate negative.

  • (EN) I am a hotdog -> I am not a hotdog; (AFR) Ek is 'n worsbroodjie -> Ek is nie 'n worsbroodjie nie
  • (EN) I endorse underage drinking -> I don't endorse underage drinking; (AFR) Ek onderskryf minderjarige drink -> Ek onderskryf nie minderjarige drink nie
  • (EN) I like to eat vetkoek -> I don't like to eat vetkoek; (AFR) Ek hou daarvan om vetkoek te eet -> Ek hou nie daarvan om vetkoek te eet nie.

However, there are exceptions to this general rule:

  • When there are the words 'iets' (something), 'al' (yet), 'ooit' (ever), 'iemand' (somebody), 'moet' (must), 'nog' (still), or 'êrens' (somewhere), you combine the 'nie' with those words to form the new words 'niks' (nothing), 'nog nie' (still not), 'nooit' (never), 'niemand' (nobody), 'moenie' (must not), 'nie meer' (not anymore), and 'nêrens' (nowhere) respectively.
    • (EN) I know somebody that can do that -> I don't know somebody that can do that; (AFR) Ek weet iemand wat dit kan doen -> Ek week niemand wat dit kan doen nie
    • (EN) I have something -> I don't have something; (AFR) Ek het iets -> Ek het niks
    • (EN) I am still sick -> I am no longer sick; (AFR) Ek is nog siek -> Ek is nie meer siek
  • When there is a personal pronoun after the first verb, then the first 'nie' goes after the personal pronoun instead of directly after the first verb.
    • (EN) Today he ate an apple -> Today he didn't eat an apple; (AFR) Vandag het hy 'n appel geëet -> Vandag het hy nie 'n appel geëet nie
  • When dealing with quantity, instead of 'nie... nie', 'geen' is used instead.
    • (EN) I have dogs -> I have no dogs; (AFR) Ek het honde -> Ek het geen honde
    • (EN) Do you have any children? -> No, I have no children; (AFR) Het jy enige kinders? -> Nee, ek het geen kinders

Woord order (Word order)

Afrikaans follows the word order Subject - Verb 1 - Time - Object - Manner - Place - Verb 2 - Infinitive (Sv1TOMPv2I). You can also start with Time, Object, Manner etc., and that results in Tv1SOMPv2I, Ov1STMPv2I etc. However, in English, the verb always comes after the subject, and auxiliary verbs are not separated from the normal verbs.

  • (AFR) Vandag het ek 'n bal geskop; (Literal EN) Today kicked I a ball; (EN) Today I kicked a ball
  • (AFR) In die kombuis het ek gister 'n koppie melk gedrink; (Literal EN) In the kitchen drank I yesterday a cup of milk; (EN) Yesterday in the kitchen I drank a cup of milk
  • (AFR) Ek moet die kos eet om vet te wees; (Literal EN) I must the food eat to become fat; (EN) I must eat the food to become fat

Note that Afrikaans is a verb-second language like German and Dutch, so verb 1 always comes second, no matter what you start with.

Passive voice

In Afrikaans, passive voice is shown by starting the sentence with the object, followed by 'word deur' (become through) if in the present tense or 'is deur' (was through) if in past tense, then followed by the subject, and then the rest of the sentence, but with the finite verb becoming past tense.

  • (AFR) Ek skop die bal. Die bal word deur my geskop; (EN) I kick the ball. The ball is kicked by me
  • (AFR) Ek het die kos geëet.

Verbs

There is no distinction for example between the infinitive and present forms of verbs, with the exception of 'wees' (to be) and 'hê' (to have), which become 'is' and 'het' in present form.

Also, verbs do not conjugate differently depending on the subject. For example:

Afrikaans Literal Translation English
ek is I is I am
jy/u is you is you are (singular)
hy/sy/dit is he/she/it is he/she/it is
ons is we is we are
julle is you is you are (plural)
hulle is they is they are

Modern Afrikaans also lacks a pluperfect (e.g. 'I had watched'). Instead, the pluperfect, like the preterite, is expressed using the perfect.

The perfect is constructed with the auxiliary verb 'het' + past participle, which—except for the verb 'hê' (past participle 'gehad'), separable verbs such as 'reghelp' (past participle 'reggehelp') and verbs with the beginnings 'be-', 'ge-', 'her-', 'er-', 'ver-', and 'ont-' ('verkoop', 'ontmoet' are both infinitive and past participle)—is formed regularly by adding the prefix 'ge-' to the verb's infinitive/present form. For example,

  • (AFR) Ek breek -> Ek het dit gebreek; I break -> I broke it, I have broken it, I had broken it

An object is necessary in this case, otherwise it implies that the subject (ek) is broken.

The conditional is indicated by the preterite form 'sou' + infinitive.

  • (AFR) Ek sou kom; (Literal EN) I should come; (EN) I would come

Like other Germanic languages, Afrikaans also has an analytic passive voice that is formed in the present tense by using the auxiliary verb 'word' (to become) + past participle, and, in the past tense, by using the auxiliary 'is' + past participle. For example,

  • (AFR) Dit word gemaak; (EN) It is being made
  • (AFR) Dit is (Dis) gemaak; (EN) It is made, It was made, It has been made (so it already exists)

Formal written Afrikaans also admits the construction of 'was gemaak' to indicate passive voice in the pluperfect, which in this case corresponds to 'had been made'. The meaning of the sentence can change based on which auxiliary verb is used (is/was).

  • 'is gemaak' implies that something has been made and is still in existence today, whereas 'was gemaak' implies that something had been made, but was destroyed or lost.

References

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